# Tag: bio-chemistry

### Questions Related to bio-chemistry

For a person suffering from diabetes, the intake of carbohydrates should be preferably in the form of

1. Monosaccharide

2. Disaccharide

3. Polysaccharide

4. All of the above

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Carbohydrates should constitute around 60-70% of the total calories in diabetics. Carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars need restriction. The carbohydrates should be in the form of complex polysaccharides (starch) and contain adequate amount of digestible fibres. Very high carbohydrate intakes and/or high glycaemic index foods can exacerbate the dyslipidemia, including hypertriglyceridemia.

Therefore, the correct answer is option C.

................... is an insulin resistant type of diabetes mellitus.

1. Type 1

2. Type 2

3. Type 3

4. None of these

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

• Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease that results in high sugar level in the blood or high blood glucose.
• Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.
• Type 1 DM results from the failure of the beta cells of the pancreas to produce enough insulin.
• Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.

Therefore, the correct answer is option B.

What is the basic difference between fertilizers and manures?

1. Fertilizers are natural and manures are artificial

2. Fertilizers are artificil and manures are natural

3. Fertilizers increase the fertility of the soil and manures reduce the fertility of the soil

4. Fertilizers prevents the growth of crop and manures increase the fertility of the soil

5. None of these

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

• Fertilizers are  chemicals manufactured industrially, added to soil or land to increase its fertility.
• Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

So, the correct option is 'Fertilizers are artificial and manures are natural'.

.......... is the form in which digested fats are absorbed into the intestinal walls.

1. Chylomicrons

2. Micelles

3. Bile salts

4. Both A and B

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Micelles are formed when bile emulsifies the fat which makes it water soluble and can be absorbed by the intestinal wall. Later on, they convert into chylomicrons by coating them with proteins are absorbed by the lymph vessels which transport it into a blood and then it reaches the cell.

So the correct option is 'Micelles'.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding micelles in the intestine?

1. Micelles are very small fat molecules

2. Micelles are small spherical water soluble droplets

3. Micelles help fatty acids and glycerol to be absorbed in to the lymph vessels

4. Micelles are also called chylomicrons

Correct Option: B,C
Explanation:

Micelles are formed when bile emulsifies the fat which makes it water soluble and can be absorbed by the intestinal wall, later on, they convert into chylomicrons by coating them with proteins are absorbed by the lymph vessels which transport it into a blood and then it reaches the cell.

So the correct option is 'Micelles are small spherical water-soluble droplets and Micelles help fatty acids and glycerol to be absorbed into the lymph vessels'.

Chylomicrons are protein coated small fat globules formed in

1. Lumen of intestine

2. Lacteals of villi

3. Cells of mucosa

4. Blood vessels of villi

Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Chylomicrons are protein coated small fat globules formed in lumen of the small intestine, it is in this form that the fats are absorbed across the intestinal lumen into the circulatory system
So, the correct answer is 'Lumen of intestine'

Which of the following chemical substance is absorbed by passive transport from the intestine?

1. Glucose

2. Galactose

3. Amino acid

4. Fructose

Correct Option: A
Explanation:
The chemical substance which is absorbed by the passive transport from the intestine is glucose, transported by SGLUT 1 and SGLUT 2
So, the correct answer is 'Glucose'

The absorption of nutrients, like amino acids, occurs via co-transport channels, which couple with the movement of $Na+$. Which of the following statement is true for this type of co-transport?

1. In this both amino acids and $Na+$ move down a electrochemical gradient.

2. Both amino acids and $Na+$ are absorbed agfainst the electrochemical gradient

3. Amino acids are absorbed against the electrochemical gradient and $Na+$ moves towards the electromagnetic gradient.

4. Amino acids move towards the electrochemical gradient and $Na+$ against the electrochemical gradient.

Correct Option: D
Explanation:
The transport of amino acids takes place with the help of co-transporters where amino acids move along the concentration gradient while Na^+ moves against the concentration gradient.
So, the correct answer is 'Amino acids move towards the electrochemical gradient and Na+Na+ against the electrochemical gradient'

Fatty acids and glycerol are first absorbed by

1. Lymph vessels

2. Blood

3. Blood capillaries

4. Hepatic portal vein

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Triglycerides are emulsified by bile and hydrolyzed by the enzyme lipase, resulting in a mixture of fatty acids and monoglycerides. These then pass from the intestinal lumen into the enterocyte, where they are re-esterified to form triacylglycerol. The triacylglycerol is then combined with phospholipids, cholesterol ester, and apolipoprotein to form chylomicrons. These chylomicrons then pass into the lacteals, forming a milky substance known as chyle. The lacteals merge to form larger lymphatic vessels that transport the chyle to the thoracic duct where it is emptied into the bloodstream at the subclavian vein.

Fatty acids are primarily absorbed through blood capillaries, has which of the following number of carbon molecules?

1. Up to 10 carbons

2. More than 10 carbons

3. Up to 20 carbons

4. More than 20 carbons

Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms are called short-chain fatty acids or volatile fatty acids. They are primarily absorbed through blood capillaries.
So the correct answer is 'Up to 10 carbons'.