Tag: botany

Questions Related to botany

State whether the following statements are true or false:
In the vascular bundle of leaf, xylem is located towards the adaxial side of the leaf.

  1. True

  2. False

Correct Option: A

Leaf has epidermis on both of its surfaces. The photosynthetic tissue of a leaf is sandwiched between its upper and lower epidermis and is well supplied by the vascular system. In a leaf, xylem always faces the upper epidermis i.e. the adaxial side while phloem faces both upper as well as lower epidermis.

Hence, the correct answer is 'True'

After completion of the biosynthetic stage in the bioreactors, the product undergoes separation and purification processes, collectively termed as _______________.

  1. Transformation

  2. Electrophoresis

  3. Downstream processing

  4. Upstream processing

Correct Option: C

After the formation of the product in bioreactors, it undergoes through some processes before a finished product is ready for marketing. The processes include separation and purification of products which is collectively called as downstream processing.

So, the correct option is 'Option C'.

Bacteria genetically engineered to express a gene from a plant will

  1. Synthesise a protein with the same sequence of amino acids as in the plant and, therefore, the protein will have the same structure and function as in the plant.

  2. Synthesis a protein with essentially the same sequence of amino acids as in the plant with differences relating to different colon wobble rules between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

  3. Not be able to synthesise a protein due to the presence of exon splicing sequences in the DNA sequence from the plant

  4. Not be able to synthesise a protein because transaction is coupled with transaction and posttranscriptional processing does not occur in it.

Correct Option: A

When bacteria (a prokaryote) is engineered to express a gene from a plant (an eukaryote), a slightly  different approach is used. Eukaryotic genes have both exons and Introns which are transcribed into the primary transcript. Primary transcript is then processed by splicing (removal of introns and joining of exons), capping and tailling to produce functional mRNAs. This functional mRNA is then expressed into proteins. Prokaryotes lack such machinery, hence expression of an eukaryotic DNA becomes difficult in prokaryotic cells. Therefore, scientists prepare cDNA from the functional nRNA (without introns) using reverse transcriptase. This DNA is incorporated into bacteria (or another prokaryotic cell) for expression of plant gene. Such foreign gene synthesises a protein with the same sequence of amino acids as in the plant, and therefore the proteins have the same structure and function as in the plant.

So, the correct answer is 'Synthesise a protein with the same sequence of amino acids as in the plant and, therefore, the protein will have the same structure and function as in the plant.'

Animals that have their DNA manipulated to process and express a foreign gene are called

  1. Transgenic animals

  2. Somatic hybrids

  3. Somaclones

  4. Super animals

Correct Option: A

The animals which carry foreign genes are called transgenic animals. The foreign genes inserted into the genome of the animal using recombinant DNA technology are called transgenes.

Which one of the following acids was produced by fermentation process?

  1. Citric acid

  2. Lactic acid

  3. Acetic acid

  4. All of the above

Correct Option: D

Organic acids are among the most versatile ingredients in food and beverage industries. Citric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, gluconic acid, propionic acid and fumaric acid are some of the organic acids used widely in various industries. They are obtained as the end-products or sometimes as the intermediate components of a particular biochemical cycle. Generally, organic acids are produced commercially either by chemical synthesis or fermentation. However, fermentation processes are the most commonly used method.

Thus, the correct answer is option D.

Purines possess nitrogen at

  1. 1, 2, 4 and 6 positions

  2. 1, 3, 5 and 7 positions

  3. 1, 3, 7 and 9 positions

  4. 1, 2, 6 and 8 positions

Correct Option: C

DNA fragments with sticky ends are not allowed to undergo self ligation by

  1. Unwindase

  2. Single strand binding proteins

  3. Gyrase

  4. Alkaline phosphatase

Correct Option: D
The correct option is D.
DNA fragment with sticky end are not allowed to undergo self ligation by Alkaline phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase is a useful enzyme in genetic engineering, it remove $5'$ phosphase group from DNA and RNA fragments. It also removes the $5'$ phosphase groups from nucleotide and proteins.

In transgenics, the expression of transgene in the target tissue is known by

  1. Enhancer

  2. Transgene

  3. Promoter

  4. Reporter

Correct Option: D

Introduction of transgenes will result in

  1. Formation of a new species

  2. Formation of a new protein

  3. Alter a biosynthetic pathway

  4. Both B and C

Correct Option: D

Read statements a-d. Which of the following statements are incorrect?
a) First transgenic buffalo Rosie produced milk which was human alpha-lactalbumin enriched.
b) Restriction enzymes are used in isolation of DNA from other macromolecules.
c) Downstream processing is one of the steps of rDNA technology.
d) Disarmed pathogen vectors are also used in the transfer of rDNA into the host.

  1. b and c

  2. c and d

  3. a and c

  4. a and b

Correct Option: D