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Poverty and its measures - class-XII

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In rural areas, who of the following are not poor?

  1. Landless agriclutural workers

  2. Backward classes

  3. Rural artisans

  4. Medium farmers


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

A cultivator with a land holding of 1 hectare or less than 2.5 acres is known as medium farmer. According to the government law, these farmers are not poor.

The number of insecure old age people is decreasing in our country.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The majority of elderly people in India face financial hardship because of one or both of the following reasons. Either most of them are no longer earning any income or their savings are inadequate to cover the cost of living, particularly medical care.

'Poverty ismore restrictive and limiting than anything else. If poverty and low standards continue then democracy, for all its fine institutions and ideals; ceases to be a liberating force. It must therefore aim continuously at the eradication of poverty and its companion unemployment. In other words, political democracy is not enough. It must develop into economic democracy also'. 

Which of the following is not implied by the above passage? 

  1. Democracy has ceased to be a liberating force.

  2. Democracy should aim to eliminate poverty.

  3. Poverty and unemployment go hand in hand.

  4. Political democracy should develop into economic democracy.


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Option (a) states that 'democracy has ceased to be a liberating force'. Thus , option (a) fails to convey the meaning implied in the argument and is incorrect.

What is the average calories required in rural areas for measuring poverty?

  1. $200$ 

  2. $2,100$

  3. $2,400$

  4. $2,300$


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

In India, the norm for calorie intake is 2,400 calories in rural areas and 2,200 in urban areas.

This is because the rural people are engaged in the more physical labour than the people in the urban areas.

Lack of shelter is the situation in which an individual is not able to secure and keep _____________.

  1. a suitable meal

  2. a suitable house

  3. a suitable cloth

  4. none of the above


Correct Option: B

In order to measure the inequalities of income and wealth which index is used?

  1. Gini coefficient

  2. Dollar

  3. NASDAQ

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A

Lack of shelter is not a major social problem in India.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Lack of shelter or homelessness is a complex social problem in India with a variety of underlying economic and social factors such as poverty, lack of affordable housing, uncertain physical and mental health, addictions, and community and family breakdown.

Poverty is a social problem not only in India but the whole world.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Poverty is one of the main causes which prohibit the people of society to live a dignified life and hence it deprives the access of the basic needs like education, health, food, clothing, housing etc. to the person.

This applies universally to all the countries in the world.

Agriculture provided on an average, ____________ level income to rural people.

  1. above subsistence

  2. below subsistence

  3. at subsistence

  4. none of the above


Correct Option: B

In the first phase of poverty alleviation emphasis was on _______.

  1. growth

  2. poverty alleviation

  3. infrastructure

  4. all of above


Correct Option: A

The economic conditions of persons engaged in non-agricultural activities in rural sector are ____________.

  1. dismal

  2. good

  3. average

  4. excellent


Correct Option: A

IWDP stands for. _______.

  1. Integrated Wastelands Development Programme

  2. Indian Wastelands Development Programme

  3. Integrated Watershed Development Programme

  4. Indian Watershed development Programme


Correct Option: A

The tenth plan target was a poverty ratio of _________ by $2007$ & _________ by $2012$.

  1. $19.3\%, 11\%$

  2. $11\%, 19.3\%$

  3. $113\%, 19\%$

  4. $11.0\%, 19.6\%$


Correct Option: A

Various causes of poverty can be classified as economic, political & social cause (True/False).

  1. True

  2. False

  3. Can't say

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A

According to the Planning Commission using Mixed Recall Period prople were below poverty line in $2009 - 10$.

  1. $42$

  2. $26$

  3. $37$

  4. $37.2$


Correct Option: D

Poverty can be defined as a situation in which _______.

  1. a person earns below Rs 5,000 p.m

  2. a person earns below Rs 7,000 p.m

  3. a person is able to fulfill their basic maximum requirement of life

  4. a person is unable to fulfill even their basic minimum requirements of life


Correct Option: D

Which of the following means relative poverty?

  1. The number of people living below a certain income threshold.

  2. The number of households unable to afford certain basic goods and services.

  3. The extent to which a household's financial resources fall below a certain average income threshold given for the economy.

  4. People given poverty certificates by the government.


Correct Option: C

_____________ poverty can be considered in two senses, namely, 'absolute poverty' and 'relative poverty'.

  1. Income

  2. Human

  3. Social

  4. Economic


Correct Option: D

Nurkse explains the phenomenon of poverty in terms of ______________.

  1. circular and cumulative causation

  2. vicious circle of development

  3. vicious circle of poverty

  4. vicious circle of low incomes


Correct Option: C

Lack of basic necessities of material well being can be termed as __________.

  1. human poverty

  2. social poverty

  3. income poverty

  4. none of the above


Correct Option: C

______________ refers to denial of opportunities to live a tolerable life, to lead a long, healthy and creative life, to enjoy a decent standard of living, freedom, dignity and self-respect.

  1. Income poverty

  2. Human poverty

  3. Social poverty

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: B

______________ refers to a situation of self-reinforcing forces in which there are certain factors that are related in a circular manner and result in continuation of poverty and under development.

  1. Vicious circle of poverty

  2. Vicious circle of development

  3. Both 'a and b'

  4. Neither 'a and b'


Correct Option: A

Poor in the __________ sector majorly consists of landless agricultural labourers, marginal and small farmers and backward classes as well as backward tribes.

  1. urban

  2. rural

  3. tertiary

  4. both B & C


Correct Option: B

Urban poverty is an extension of ________.

  1. rural poverty

  2. social poverty

  3. human poverty

  4. income poverty


Correct Option: A

In 2004-05, poverty rate was lowest in which state of India?

  1. Kerala

  2. Chattisgarh

  3. Haryana

  4. Maharashtra


Correct Option: A

Vicious circle of poverty operates from which of the following aspects of the economy?

  1. From the supply side of capital formation

  2. From the demand side of capital formation

  3. Underdevelopment of human and natural resources

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D

In 2004-05, poverty rate was highest in which state of India?

  1. Kerala

  2. Madhya Pradesh

  3. Chhattisgarh

  4. Uttar Pradesh


Correct Option: C

The essential notion of vicious circle of poverty with regards to an entire nation is that a country's poverty may by itself be a major obstacle to its development.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: A

The concept of ___________ can be precisely summed up as 'a country is poor because it is poor'.

  1. underdevelopment

  2. vicious circle of unemployment

  3. vicious circle of poverty

  4. both 'a and c'


Correct Option: C

The UN Development Report of 2014 states that India has largest number of poor people, with about __________ of the world's extreme poor residing in India. 

  1. 38%

  2. half

  3. one-third

  4. 47%


Correct Option: C

What is the criterion for the measurement of poverty line?

  1. Caloric consumption

  2. Unemployment rate

  3. Literacy level

  4. Type of dwellings


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The poverty line is calculated based on the caloric requirements of adults (working class) in rural and urban areas. In rural areas it is 2400 calories and in urban areas it is 2100 calories. The poverty line is estimated periodically (normally every five years) by conducting sample surveys. These surveys are carried out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO). However, for making comparisons between developing countries, many international organisations like the World Bank use a uniform standard for the poverty line: minimum availability of the equivalent of $1 per person per day.

Uneven distribution of poverty is due to differences in _____ and _____ infrastructure in different states.

  1. Wine, food

  2. Social, economic

  3. Wood, iron

  4. Petrol, money

  5. None of these


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Uneven distribution of poverty is due to differences in social and economic infrastructure in different states.

What is the approximate percentage of population living Below Poverty Line in India?

  1. 50.9%

  2. 62.3%

  3. 17.1%

  4. 27.5%


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

As per the Census report, the percentage of population living Below Poverty Line is 27.5%.

Punjab and Haryana have succeeded in reducing poverty with the help of ____________.

  1. Low agricultural growth rates

  2. High agricultural growth rates

  3. Rivers

  4. Transport system

  5. None of these


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Agriculture and allied fields like dairy, fisheries, animal husbandry are a major source of employment in Punjab and Haryana. So, main living of people here depends on agriculture. With the high growth rate in agriculture, these states have succeeded in reducing poverty.

The 'poorest of the poor' are those who are systematically denied equal access to their family resources in rural areas. They include _____ .

  1. women

  2. girl children

  3. elderly people

  4. all of them


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The 'poorest of the poor' are those who are systematically denied equal access to their family resources in rural areas. They include women, girl children and elderly people.

The estimation of India's poverty situation is surveyed by which government agency?

  1. Ministry of Finance

  2. Ministry of Human Development

  3. National Sample Survey Organization

  4. Indian Statistical Institute


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) was set up in 1950, with the idea of having a permanent survey organization to collect data on various facets of the economy. In order to assist in socio-economic planning and policy making, NSSO conducts nationwide sample surveys known as National Sample Survey (NSS). The NSS is a continuing survey in the sense that it is carried out in the form of successive “rounds”, each round usually of a year's duration covering several topics of current interest. The surveys are conducted through household interviews, using a random sample of households covering practically the entire geographical area of the country. 

In 2004-05 there was around _______ percent poverty in India.

  1. 15.5

  2. 17.9

  3. 19.1

  4. 21.8


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

In 2004-05 there was around 21.8 percent poverty in India.

Which organization in India studies the rate of poverty and makes an estimation about it?

  1. Planning Commission

  2. Central government

  3. National Sample Survey Organization

  4. Central Monetary Fund


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) conducts surveys to determine the minimum amount required by a rural or urban household to meet basic requirements and hence categorizes the population as above poverty line and below poverty line.

The population of India living below the poverty line ____________.

  1. is rising in relative and absolute terms

  2. is falling in relative terms but rising in absolute terms

  3. is falling in both relative and absolute terms

  4. has not changed at all over the years


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Till the mid-eighties the population of India living below the poverty line was declining in relative terms but increasing in absolute terms but now it is declining in absolute term also.

As per latest norms the minimum per capita per month consumption in urban area in order to not to be treated as below poverty line is _________.

  1. Rs. 225

  2. Rs. 245

  3. Rs. 265

  4. Rs. 310


Correct Option: C

For the purpose of defining poverty line which definition is adopted by the Planning Commission in India?

  1. Given by WHO

  2. Given by UNO

  3. Given by task force on projection of minimum needs and effective consumption demand

  4. Given by ILO


Correct Option: C

As per latest norms the minimum per capita per month consumption in rural area in order to not to be treated as below poverty line is ________.

  1. Rs. 225

  2. Rs. 265

  3. Rs. 250

  4. Rs. 310


Correct Option: A

According to the definition adopted by Planning Commission, a person is below poverty line if consumption of calories is less than ____________ in rural areas and less than ___________ in urban area & the corresponding cut off points are Rs. ____________ & Rs. ___________ respectively at $1979-80$ prices.

  1. $2400, 2100,$ Rs. $76$, Rs. $88$

  2. $2100, 2400$, Rs. $88$, Rs. $76$

  3. $2400, 2100$, Rs. $88$, Rs. $76$

  4. $2100, 2400$, Rs. $76$, Rs. $88$


Correct Option: A

Following the recommendation of the Task Force on Projection of Minimum Needs and Effective Consumption Demand, the poverty line is defined as "the per capita monthly expenditure needed to obtain the consumption of ______ calories per-capita per day in rural areas and _____ in urban areas in the base year 1973-74."

  1. 2,100,3,200

  2. 3,200,2,500

  3. 2,400,2,100

  4. 3,400,3,100


Correct Option: C

Absolute Poverty is relevant for___.

  1. developed countries

  2. less developed countries

  3. both (a) and (b)

  4. neither (a) nor (b)


Correct Option: B

Relative poverty is relevent for____.

  1. developed countries

  2. under- developed

  3. both (a) and (b)

  4. neither (a) nor (b)


Correct Option: A

In the context of Poverty, BPL stands for __________.

  1. budget - price line

  2. below poverty line

  3. budgetary policy imits

  4. none of the above


Correct Option: B

In relative poverty, the concept of poverty is related to distribution of____.

  1. income

    • consumption expenditure
  2. ether (a) or (b)

  3. neither (a) nor (B)


Correct Option: C

Minimum Standard of living is identified in the determination of____.

  1. absolute poverty

  2. relative poverty

  3. both (a) and (b)

  4. neither (a) nor (b)


Correct Option: A

Minimum level of consumption standard laid down is called as________.

  1. consumption standard

  2. demand levels

  3. income line

  4. poverty line


Correct Option: D

According to NSSO (2009 - 10) data, the percentage of people living Below Line has ______ compared to the previous (2004 - 05) data.

  1. increased

  2. remained same

  3. decreased

  4. nothing can be said


Correct Option: C

Based on Tendulkar Committee Report, the estimation of poverty lines as an monthly per capita expenditure for rural reas is ______ per month.

  1. ₹ 225 

  2. ₹ 245 

  3.  ₹ 446

  4. ₹ 860 


Correct Option: C

Based on Tendulkar Committee Report, the estimation of poverty lines as an monthly per capita expenditure for urban areas is ______ per month.

  1. ₹ 225 

  2. ₹ 245 

  3. ₹ 673 

  4. ₹ 578


Correct Option: D

When poverty is related to distribution of income or consumption expenditure, it is __________.

  1. absolute poverty

  2. relative poverty

  3. both of above

  4. none of above


Correct Option: B

Absolute poverty is the inability to afford the basic amenities.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Absolute poverty refers to a condition where a person does not have the minimum amount of income needed to meet the minimum requirements for one or more basic living needs over an extended period of time.

Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty are Scheduled Castes and _____ households.

  1. Other Backward Classes

  2. Traders

  3. Upper Class

  4. Scheduled Tribes

  5. None of these


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The social groups most vulnerable to poverty are the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribe households. Both of these groups have above average levels of poverty indicators in the rural and the urban population.

What are the causes of poverty in India?

  1. Inadequate anti-poverty measures

  2. Backward technology in agriculture

  3. Socio-cultural factors

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D

The persons who can't undertake consumption expenditure required for the minimum calorie intake fall __________.

  1. below the poverty line (BPL)

  2. below the poverty scale (BPS)

  3. above the poverty scale (APS)

  4. above the poverty line (APL)


Correct Option: A

The concept of _________ is used in India to measure the extent of poverty in India.

  1. income poverty

  2. poverty line

  3. poverty scale

  4. poverty standard


Correct Option: B

Which of the following can be described as a cause of poverty in India?

  1. Unemployment

  2. Income inequality

  3. Lack of Economic Development

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D

Political power is concentrated in the hands of the lower strata of the society in India.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: B

Select the incorrect statement related to the estimation of poverty in India, using the code given below:
1. The poverty line in India is income based.
2. The poverty line was originally fixed in terms of income/food requirements in 1978.
3. Food requirement was based on calorie standard for individuals in rural and urban areas in 1980-the cost of procuring the foodgrains equivalent calorie was fixed as the poverty line.

  1. 1 and 2

  2. 2 and 3

  3. 1 and 3

  4. 1,2 and 3


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Calorie intake was made the basic for determining poverty in 1978 itself. It was stipulated that the calorie standard for a typical individual in rural areas were 2400 calories and was 2100 calories in urban areas. Two committees under the chairmanships of Prof. Suresh D. Tendulkar and Dr. N.C. Saxena have submitted their reports on methodology for estimation of poverty and methodology for conducting BPL census in rural areas, respectively. Presently, NITI Aayog is working on a new methodology.

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