### Blood and its components - class-X

 Description: blood and its components Number of Questions: 64 Created by: Trisha Prashad Tags: blood circulatory system of human transport in mammals the circulatory system simple nutrients into cells biology body fluids and circulation
Attempted 0/64 Correct 0 Score 0

Which of the following are the constituents of blood?

1. Mucus

2. Plasma

3. Lymph

4. Bile

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins), and removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid.

So, the correct option is 'Plasma'.

Blood plasma is ............ nature.

1. Alkaline

2. Acidic

3. Neutral

4. None of the above

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The pH of the extracellular fluid, including the blood plasma, is normally tightly regulated between 7.32 and 7.42, by the chemical buffers, the respiratory system, and the renal system.

So, the correct answer is 'Alkaline'.

Plasma do not contain

1. Haemoglobin

2. Water

3. Blood cells

4. Both A and C

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

One half of blood is composed of red blood cells (consist of an oxygen-carrying protein called hemoglobin), white blood cells and platelets which are considered as solid part of blood and another half is composed of water, salts and proteins which is the fluid part of blood. The fluid part of blood is known as plasma. Hence plasma does not contain haemoglobin, blood cells.

So, the correct answer is 'Both A and C'.

Plasma has water to the extent of _____________.

1. $80\%$

2. $60\%$

3. $70\%$

4. $90\%$ or more

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Plasma, which is 92 percent water, constitutes 55 percent of blood volume. Plasma contains albumin (the chief protein constituent), fibrinogen (responsible, in part, for the clotting of blood), and globulins (including antibodies).

So, the correct answer is '90%'.

Major component of blood plasma is

1. Water

2. Inorganic substances

3. Organic substances

4. Blood cells

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

One half of blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which are considered as solid part of blood and another half is composed of water, salts and proteins which is the fluid part of blood. The fluid part of blood is known as plasma. Plasma is a straw coloured, viscous fluid it has about 90-92% water and 6-8% proteins. Hence a major component of blood plasma is water.

So, the correct answer is 'Water'

Which one is the principal cation in the plasma of blood?

1. $K^+$

2. $Na^+$

3. $Ca^{2+}$

4. $Mg^{2+}$

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Sodium is the most abundant electrolyte, and the most abundant cation, in blood plasma. Sodium plays a large role in maintaining water balance in the blood and in the tissues.The body monitors sodium and the volume of blood; sensors in certain parts of the body, such as the blood vessels and kidney, tell the kidneys whether to increase or decrease the excretion of sodium and water. Sodium also plays an important role in the functioning of nerve and muscle cells. Sodium and potassium traveling back and forth across the membranes of cells generate a charge, which can cause a muscle cell to contract or a nerve cell to transmit a signal.

So, the correct answer is 'Na+'.

Mineral forming $90$% of the cations of blood plasma is

1. $Mg$

2. $Ca$

3. $K$

4. $Na$

Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Sodium is the most abundant element in blood plasma while calcium is the most abundant element in the human body.
Mg forms an important constituent of chlorophyll. Magnesium is centrally located in the chlorophyll. It consists of porphyrin ring which has magnesium ion in the center.
Calcium is required for the contraction of muscles.
Potassium ions helps in the nerve transmission. For every three sodium ions two potassium ions are exchanged with the extracellular fluid.
Sodium is the most abundant mineral present in the extracellular fluid which helps in the nerve transmission. The sodium ions enters inside the nerve cell from the extracellular fluid and generates action potential. It leads to change in electrical potential that occurs across a plasma membrane during the passage of a nerve impulse. As, an impulse travels in a wave-like manner along the axon of a nerve, it causes a localised and transient switch in electric potential across the membrane from -60 mV to +45 mV. It is due to the fact that the sodium channels open and the potassium channels remain closed.
So, the correct answer is option D.

In blood, the main buffers are

1. Na$^+$ and K$^+$.

2. Sodium di-hydrogen phosphate and sodium mono-hydrogen phosphate.

3. Carbonic acid and bicarbonate.

4. Ammonium acetate.

Correct Option: C
Explanation:
A Buffer is an aqueous solution that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added to it. The main buffer in the blood contains a large amount of carbonic acid, a weak acid, and bicarbonate, a base. Together, they help to maintain the pH of the blood at 7.4. The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base mechanism to maintain the balance of pH in the blood, in order to support proper metabolic functions.
So the correct answer is C.

Most of the blood proteins are

1. Acidic

2. Basic

3. Neutral

4. All the above in equal proportions

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Blood proteins are different types of proteins found in blood plasma. These include majorly albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and other regulatory proteins which function as enzymes or hormones. Albumin alone accounts for 55% of the total blood proteins and is acidic in nature. It creates and maintains osmotic pressure of plasma and also helps in the transport of lipids and steroid hormones. Globulin is slightly basic and accounts for 38% of blood proteins. It participates in immune system. Fibrinogen comprises 7% of blood proteins and help in blood clotting.

Thus, the correct answer is option A.

Consider the following four statements and select the correct option stating which ones are true (T) and which ones are false (F)?
(i) Proteins contribute 6 - 8% of the blood plasma.
(ii) Plasma contains very high amount of minerals.
(iii) Plasma without the clotting factors is called serum.
(iv) Glucose, amino acids, lipids, etc., are also present in the plasma as they are always in transit in the body.

1. i - F

ii - F

iii - T

iv - T

2. i - T

ii - F

iii - T

iv - T

3. i - T

ii - T

iii - F

iv - F

4. i - F

ii - F

iii - F

iv - T

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Blood plasma contains dissolved proteins (6–8%) (i.e.—serum albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen), glucose, clotting factors, electrolytes, hormones, CO$_2$ and oxygen.

Though plasma contain substantial amount of minerals but the concentration in terms of percentage can not be defined as 'high amount' in terms of their presence in plasma.
Blood plasma without clotting factor is called serum.
Thus, the correct answer is' i - T, ii - F, iii - T, iv - T.'

The blood plasma contains a dissolved substance called ________

1. Serum

2. fibrinogen

3. hemoglobin

4. pulmonary

Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Blood plasma in human beings consists of a dissolved substance called as Haemoglobin which consists of a haem complex with globin protein. The main function of haemoglobin is oxygen transport within the body. It also acts as a buffer.
So, the correct answer is, 'Hemoglobin'.

Plasma protein involves in defense mechanism is

1. Fibrinogen

2. Globulins

3. Albumin

4. None of the above

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Albumin, fibrinogen and globulin are major plasma proteins in the body.  Globulins are involved in defense mechanisms of the body. These transport ions, hormones, and lipids helping in immune function. Fibrinogens are involved in the clotting or coagulation of blood. Albumins are involved in maintaining the osmotic balance.

Thus, the correct answer is 'Globulins.'

Which of the following is found in blood and not in nephric filtration?

1. Urea

2. Glucose and Globulin

3. Amino acids

4. None of the above

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

A) Urea is excreted through urine.
B) Glucose is usually only found in the urine when blood glucose levels are raised due to diabetes. This disorder is called glycosuria.

C) Some amino acids like glutamic acid, serine, glycine, threonine, alanine, glutamine, lysine, and tyrosine are found in blood excreted in urine.
D) No significant amount of globulins are found in the urine. Globulins and other proteins are filtered out to form urine. Presence of excess protein bodies in the urine is called proteinuria and indicates kidney damage.
So the correct answer is 'Glucose and Globulin'.

Plasma without clotting factors is known as

1. Serum

2. Fibrinogen

3. Albumin

4. Both A and B

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The liquid part of the blood is called as plasma. Plasma without clotting factors is known as serum. Albumin, globulin and fibrinogen are major proteins present in the plasma.

Thus, the correct answer is 'Serum.'

The major function of alpha and beta globulins in the plasma is

1. They develop colloidal osmotic pressure

2. Help in immune response

3. Act as antigens

4. Act as carrier proteins

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Alpha and beta globulins function as enzymes and proteins that transport compounds in the body. Gamma globulins act as the antibody defence against antigen invasion. Beta globulins are also manufactured mostly in the liver.

So the correct option is 'Act as carrier proteins'.

Which is the principal cation in the plasma of the blood?

1. Calcium

2. Sodium

3. Potassium

4. Magnesium

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Sodium is the most abundant electrolyte and main cation in the blood plasma which plays a major role in maintaining water balance in the blood and in the tissues.

So, the correct answer is 'sodium'.

What will happen, if there is an increase in plasma albumin?

1. Increased blood pressure

2. Increased rate of heart

3. Greater accumulation of tissue fluid

4. Decrease filtration in the glomerulus

Correct Option: A
Explanation:
• Serum or plasma albumin is the protein found in plasma.
• It is most abundant protein in the plasma and constitutes about half the proteins in the plasma.
• Albumin transports hormones, fatty acids, and other compounds, buffers pH and maintains oncotic pressure.
• Oncotic pressure is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by protein in a blood vessel's plasma.
• Therefore, the increase in plasma albumin levels leads to the increased blood pressure and in severe conditions may lead to heart attack.
• So, the correct answer is 'increased blood pressure'.

Which of the following is incorrect about ultrafiltration?

1. Podocytes are arranged in intricate manner so as to leave minute space called filtration slits and slit pore, filtration occur finely through these pores

2. Filtration is so fine that almost all constituent of blood except protein pass onto the lumen of Bowman's capsule

3. Filtrated fluid is isotonic to blood plasma

4. JGA control filtration rate of Ultrafiltration

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

•  Podocytes are arranged in an intricate manner around in the glomerulus so as to leave minute spaces called filtration slits and slit pores, filtration occurs finely through these pores.
• Filtration is so fine that almost all constituent of blood except protein pass onto the lumen of Bowman's capsule.
• The fluid formed after the filtration of blood is more concentrated as compared to blood.
• JGA controls the rate of Ultrafiltration.
So, the correct answer is 'Filtrated fluid is isotonic to blood plasma'.

The largest amount of $CO _2$ is transported by the blood as?

1. $CO _2$ in the plasma

2. $H _2CO _3$ in the plasma

3. Bicarbonate ions in plasma

4. Bicarbonate ions in the erythrocytes

Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Carbon dioxide produced in the body is transported either in the plasma, in the form of bicarbonate ions or in the form of carbaminohemoglobin. The maximum amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the form of bicarbonate ions formed in the erythrocytes.

So, the correct answer is 'Bicarbonate ions in plasma'.

From the following terms, choose one term which includes the other four.

1. Plasma

2. Platelets

3. Blood

4. RBC

5. WBC

Correct Option: A

In which animals erythrocruorin is directly dissolve in blood plasma?

1. Limulus

2. Nereis

3. Pila

4. Asterias

Correct Option: A

Match the animals listed below with their nature of blood. Choose the answer which gives the correct combination of alphabets of the two columns.

Animals  Nature of blood
A. Man (p)  Plasma and cells are colourless
B. Earthworm (q) Plasms is colourless and nucleated
C. Cockroach (r) Plasma is colourless and enucleated RBC
D. Frog (s) Plasma is red and nucleated, colourless RBC
(t) Plasma and RBC have haemoglobin

1. A- p, B- s, C- q, D- r

2. A- t, B- r, C- p, D- s

3. A- r, B- s, C- p, D- q

4. A- s, B- t, C- r, D- q

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

blood is the bodily fluid that is responsible to carry nutrients and oxygen to the body cells and transports the metabolic waste materials from these. It contains antibodies, nutrients and oxygen. However, the nature of blood is different in different organisms. In human beings, 55% of blood is plasma which is made up of 92% water and  7% proteins and salts and carry RBC's WBC's and Platelets. The RBC's are without nuclei. In the earthworm the  blood consists of ameboid cells and hemoglobin dissolved in the plasma. Cockroaches lack heamoglobin in their blood. are thus white. Like all amphibians frogs have red blood cells with a distinct nucleus.

The ion which is present maximum in blood plasma is

1. K$^+$

2. Ca$^{++}$

3. Mg$^{++}$

4. Na$^+$

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Blood Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood. This is composed of water( 90%), ions, energy substrates, nutrients, metabolites,  antibodies, proteins, and lipoproteins. The most numerous cation in blood plasma is Na+, K+, Mg+, and Ca2+. However, Na+ is the main cation and is responsible for the plasma osmolarity.

During transport of $CO _2$ , blood does not become acidic due to

1. Neutralisation of $H _2CO _3$ by $Na _2CO _3$

2. Absorption of leucoyctes

3. Blood buffers

4. Non-accumulation

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The bicarbonate buffering system of blood is an important buffer system in the acid-base homeostasis of living things, including humans. As a buffer, it tends to maintain a relatively constant plasma pH and counteract any force that would alter. In this system, carbon dioxide ${CO _{2}}$ combines with water ${H _{2}O}$ to form carbonic acid ${H _{2}CO _{3}}$, which in turn rapidly dissociates to form hydrogen ions ${H^{+}}$ and bicarbonate ${HCO _{3}^{}}$ as shown in the reactions below.
${CO _{2} + H _{2}O \rightleftarrows H _{2}CO _{3} \rightleftarrows HCO _{3}^{-} + H^{+}}$
The carbon dioxide - carbonic acid equilibrium is catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase; the carbonic acid - bicarbonate equilibrium is simple proton dissociation/association and needs no catalyst. Any disturbance of the system will be compensated by a shift in the chemical equilibrium.

Urea is transported by

1. Plasma

2. RBC

3. WBC

4. All of the above

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The main harmful substances in the blood are urea and bicarbonate ions. Urea is the product of excess amino acids. It is transported into blood plasma by the liver and removed by the kidney. This process is called excretion.

Plasma contains around .......... of water.

1. 20%

2. 90%

3. 60%

4. 40%

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

It is mostly water (up to 95% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins (6–8%) (i.e.—serum albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen), glucose, clotting factors, electrolytes (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3, Cl, etc.), hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation) and oxygen.

So, the correct option is '90%'.

If blood cells are eliminated from the blood, the liquid left is

1. Serum

2. Plasma

3. Lymph

4. Synovial fluid

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The blood is composed of a faintly yellow transparent fluid known as the plasma and floating in this fluid are numerous cells or corpuscles of different kinds. Thus Blood -Blood cells $=$ Plasma.

Globulins contained in human blood plasma are primarily involved in

1. Defence mechanisms of the body

2. Osmotic balance of the body fluids

3. Oxygen transport in the blood

4. Clotting of the blood

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The three proteins found in human blood plasma are :
Albumin - which is involved in controlling the osmotic balance.
Globulins - that produce antibodies, and is thus, involved in defence purposes.
Fibrinogens - that helps in clotting of blood.
Thus, the correct answer is option (A).

Fluid Part of blood after removal of corpuscles is ___________.

1. Plasma

2. Lymph

3. Serum

4. Vaccine

Correct Option: A

Serology is the study of

1. Nutrition

2. Lizards

3. Serum

4. Trypsin

Correct Option: C
Explanation:
The serum is the part of the blood which is similar in composition with plasma but excluding clotting factors. By definition, serology is a branch of laboratory medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection and other parameters by evaluating by antigen-antibody reactions in vitro. Hence, serology is the study of serum.
So, the correct answer is 'Serum'.

Which of the following components are present in the plasma?

1. Water

2. Salt

3. Proteins

4. All of the above

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

One half of blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which are considered as solid part of blood and another half is composed of water, salts and proteins which is the fluid part of blood. The fluid part of blood is known as plasma. Hence the components present in the plasma are water, salts and proteins.

So, the correct answer is 'All of the above'.

The matrix of the plasma contains

1. Water and Salts

2. Blood cells

3. Only platelets

4. Only RBCs and WBCs

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Plasma is the extracellular matrix which holds the blood cells. It makes 55 percent of the total blood volume. It consists of 95% of water and 8% of proteins. The protein like serum albumins, globulins, fibrinogen etc. In addition, it also contains glucose, electrolytes and clotting factors. Thus, the correct answer is option A.

Percentage of protein is more in

1. Lymph

2. Blood

3. Plasma

4. W.B.C

Correct Option: B

Blood proteins connected with antibodies are

1. Albumins

2. $\beta$-globulins

3. Gamma globulins

4. $\alpha$-globulins

Correct Option: C
Explanation:
One half of blood is composed of water, salts, and proteins which is the fluid part of blood. The fluid part of blood is known as Plasma. Plasma is a straw-colored, viscous fluid it has about 90-92% water and 6-8% proteins.  Fibrinogen, globulins, and albumins are the major proteins present in plasma. Hence Globulin is a plasma protein. Globulins are of three types alpha, beta, and gamma. Gamma globulins are blood proteins connected with antibodies.
So, the correct answer is 'Gamma globulins'.

Most of the blood proteins are

1. Acidic

2. Basic

3. Neutral

4. All the above in equal proportions

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Plasma is composed of 90-92% water and 6-8 % plasma proteins. Fibrinogen, globulins and albumins are the major proteins. The pH of blood is 7.35 to 7.45 slightly alkaline. Most of the blood proteins are acidic in order to neutralize the pH of blood.

So, the correct answer is 'Acidic'.

About $97\%$ of oxygen is transported by RBC. The remaining $3\%$ is?

1. Retained in lungs

2. Dissolved in plasma and transported

3. Attached to cell membrane

4. Inside mitochondria

5. In peroxisomes

Correct Option: B

The amount of water present in blood plasma is

1. 60%

2. 70%

3. 80%

4. 90%

Correct Option: D
Explanation:
One half of blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which are considered as solid part of blood and another half is composed of water, salts, and proteins which is the fluid part of blood. The fluid part of blood is known as Plasma. Plasma is a straw-colored, viscous fluid it has about 90-92% water and 6-8% proteins. Hence The amount of water present in blood plasma is 90%.
So, the correct answer is '90%'.

Blood does not contain

1. Calcium.

2. Prothrombin.

3. Fibrinogen.

4. Elastin.

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Elastin is a highly elastic protein found in certain connective tissues throughout the body. It is mostly found in the extracellular matrix of the skin and internal organs of the body. Calcium, prothrombin, and fibrinogen are the blood clotting factors present in the blood. Blood is a fluid connective tissue it does not require elasticity hence elastin is absent in blood.

So, the correct answer is 'Elastin'.

The major proteins of blood plasma are

1. Albumin, globulin and fibrinogen.

2. Collagen, elastin and fibrinogen.

3. Albumin, glutelin and p-protein.

4. Actin, myosin and tubulin.

Correct Option: A
Explanation:
One half of blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which are considered as solid part of blood and another half is composed of water, salts, and proteins which is the fluid part of blood. The fluid part of blood is known as Plasma. Plasma is a straw-colored, viscous fluid it has about 90-92% water and 6-8% proteins. The major proteins of blood plasma are Albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen.
So, the correct answer is 'Albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen'.

Blood maintains homoestasis in body by

1. Replenishment of $O _2$ and nutrients, elimination of wastes

2. Replenishment of $O _2$ and elimination of $CO _2$

3. Maintenance of sugar level, conversion of amino acids into urea and destruction of worn out RBCs

4. Maintenance of ion concentration in blood and body fluids by eliminating nitrogenous wastes.

Correct Option: A

Plasma proteins perform

1. Nutritive function

2. Physicochemical function

3. Transport function

4. All the above.

Correct Option: D
Choose the correct option regarding the statements.
1. Plasma constitutes 45% of blood.
2. Albumin is plasma protein involved in osmotic balance.
3. Blood clotting factors are present in blood.
4. Plasma without clotting factors is serum.
1. 1-4 correct, 5 wrong

2. 1-2 correct, 3, 4, 5 wrong

3. 2, 3, 4 correct, 1 and 5 wrong

4. 2 and 4 correct, 1, 3, 5, wrong

5. 1 and 5 correct, 2, 3, 4 wrong

Correct Option: C
Explanation:
1. Blood plasma is the fluid portion of blood and constitutes about 55- 60% of the blood.
2. Albumin is the smallest protein present in blood plasma. It maintains osmotic pressure of plasma and also maintains osmotic balance of cells and tissue fluids.
3. Blood contains 13 clotting factors which are named in roman numerals from I to XIII. For example, factor I is fibrinogen, factor II is prothrombin and factor XIII is fibrin stabilising factor.
4. Blood plasma without any clotting factor is called serum.
5. Blood contains many inorganic micronutrients called minerals which are essential for normal body functions such as calcium, iron, phosphorus, sodium etc.
Hence, statements 2,3,4 are correct and 1,5 are incorrect.
So, the correct answer is '2, 3, 4 correct, 1 and 5 wrong'.

Amino acid functioning as buffer in blood is

1. Histidine

2. Glutamine

3. Glutamic acid

4. Lysine.

Correct Option: A

Globulins contained in human blood plasma are primarily involved in

1. Clotting of blood

2. Osmotic balance of body fluids

3. Defence mechanism of body

4. Oxygen transport in blood.

Correct Option: C

Which of these is/are inactive forms
(i) Fibrin (ii) Fibrinogen (iii) Thrombin (iv) Prothrombin (v) Thrombokinase

1. v only

2. i and iii only

3. i and ii only

4. iii and v only

5. ii and iv only.

Correct Option: E

Match the column I (constituent of blood plasma) with column II (its function) and select correct option

I II
(p) Globulins (x) Regulation of membrane permeability
(q) Sodium (y) Clotting of blood
(r) Water (z) Defence and liquid transport
(s) Fibrinogen (w) Solvent for carrying substances
1. p-w, q-z, r-z, s-y

2. p-z, q-x, r-w, s-y

3. p-y, q-w, r-y, s-x

4. p-w, q-y, r-z, s-w.

Correct Option: B

Properdin is

1. Neurohormone for stimulating body activities

2. Plasma protein that destroys foreign RBC's

3. Plasma protein involved in defence against certain bacteria and viruses

4. Both B and C

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Properdin is a gamma globulin protein present in the serum of blood. Properdin participates in certain immune functions such as it destroys foreign RBC's and is involved in the defense against certain bacteria and viruses.

So, the correct answer is 'Both B and C'.

About _________ percent of $O _{2}$ is carried in dissolved state through the plasma. Choose the correct options.

1. $a = 9.8\ ml, b = 6000\ ml$ to $8000\ ml, c = 12\ to \ 16, d = 3$

2. $a = 5\ ml, b = 500\ ml, c = 12\ to \ 16, d = -3$

3. $a = 9.8\ ml, b = 5\ ml$ to $8000\ ml, c = 12\ to \ 16, d = 3$

4. $a = 5\ ml, b = 6000\ ml$ to $8000\ ml, c = 18 times, d = 7$

Correct Option: A

The liquid portion of the blood is called as

1. Plasma

2. Leucocyte

3. Serum

4. None of the above

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Plasma is the liquid component of blood. It comprises 55 percent of the total blood volume. Plasma is composed of 90 percent water with antibodies, coagulation factors, and other substances such as electrolytes, lipids, and proteins required for maintaining the body.

Which of the following is not a component of plasma?

1. Water

2. Globulins

3. Fibrinogen

4. Platelets

Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Plasma is a fluid component of blood. It comprises 55% of the total blood volume. Plasma is composed of 90% water with antibodies, coagulation factors, globulins, fibrinogens and it also contains electrolytes, lipids and proteins required for maintaining the body. Platelets are the cellular components of the blood
So, the correct answer is 'Platelets'

Read the following statements and select the correct option.
A. Blood cells secrete fibres of structural proteins called collagen or elastin.
B. Neuroglial cells protect and support the nephrons.
C. Osteocytes are present in spaces called lacunae.
D. Striated muscle fibres are bundles together in a parallel fashion.
E. Biceps are involuntary and striated.

1. C and D statements are wrong.

2. A and C statements are wrong.

3. B and C statements are wrong.

4. A, B and E statements are wrong.

Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Voluntary muscles are under the control of the will and is generally attached to the skeleton. An individual muscle consists of bundles of long muscle fibres, each bounded by a sarcolemma and containing sarcoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and many nuclei. Ex - Biceps.Neuroglial cells protect and support the neurons. Blood cells secrete fibrin that helps in clotting during an injury or a wound.

So the correct option is 'A, B and E statements are wrong'.

A drop of each of the following, is placed separately on four slides. Which of them will not coagulate?

1. Blood serum

2. Blood from pulmonary artery

3. Whole blood from pulmonary vein

4. Blood plasma

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Blood serum is liquid minus clotting elements of pale yellow colour. It may contain certain types of WBCs, antigens, hormones etc.  It does not have fibrinogen and other clotting materials. It does not take part in blood clotting. Hence if a drop of each of following, is placed separately on four slides blood serum will not coagulate.

So, the correct answer is "Blood Serum."

Water retention in plasma is brought about mainly by

1. Fibrinogen

2. Serum albumins

3. Alpha globulins

4. Gamma globulins

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

A) Fibrinogens are responsible for clotting.
B) Serum albumins transport hormones, fatty acids, and other compounds, buffers pH, and maintain osmotic pressure of the blood by retaining extra water. It also binds to many drugs.

C) Alpha globulins and beta globulins function as enzymes and proteins that transport compounds in the body.
D) Gamma globulins act as the antibody defense against antigen invasion.
So the correct answer is 'serum albumins'.

The percentage of plasma proteins is:

1. 90 -92%

2. 6-8%

3. 55%

4. 2%

Correct Option: A

Observe the following statements and select which are true or false?
(1) Plasma constitutes 45% of the human blood.
(2) Albumin is a plasma protein which helps in osmotic balance.
(3) Factors responsible for the blood clotting process are present in the blood.
(4) Plasma without clotting factors is called serum.
(5) Minerals are not generally found in blood.

1. Only 5 is wrong and all others 1 to 4 are correct.

2. 1 and 2 are correct and 3, 4 and 5 are wrong.

3. 2 and 4 are correct and 1, 3 and 5 are wrong.

4. 1 and 5 are correct and 2, 3 and 4 are wrong.

5. 2, 3 and 4 are correct and 1 and 5 are wrong.

Correct Option: E
Explanation:

Albumin protein in plasma is responsible for maintaining osmotic balance. Plasma constitutes about 55% of the human blood and blood cells constitute 45% of the human blood. Minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium regulate normal blood pressure. Blood clotting factors are present in blood. Serum is the plasma from which clotting factors have been removed.

Thus, the correct answer is option E.

Bilirubin and biliverdin are derived from

1. Globin

2. Heme

3. Iron

4. Fat

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Bilirubin and biliverdin are derived from heme. The component of haemoglobin responsible for binding oxygen, consists of an iron ion, that binds oxygen and a porphyrin ring, that binds the globin molecules; one molecule binds one molecule of oxygen. Biliverdin results from the breakdown of the heme moiety of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. Bilirubin is the yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism, caused by the body's clearance of aged red blood cells which contain hemoglobin.

Urea is transported through

1. RBCs

2. WBCs

3. Plasma

4. Lymph

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Blood plasma makes up most of the blood. It is mostly water with dissolved substances in it like carbon dioxide, hormones, food nutrients, urea and other waste products.

The principal cation present in the blood plasma is

1. $K^+$

2. $Mg^{2+}$

3. $Ca^{2+}$

4. $Na^+$

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The plasma is a faint yellow, slightly alkaline, somewhat viscous fluid. It consists of about 90% water, 1% inorganic salts in solution and 7 to 8 % proteins in the colloidal state. The remaining 1% is formed by food materials, waste products, dissolved gases etc. The inorganic salts occur in plasma as ions. Sodium and chloride are the principal cation and anion of the plasma respectively. Thus, the correct answer is option D.

What does blood consists of?

1. 60% plasma, 40% corpuscles

2. 40% plasma, 60% corpuscles

3. 25% plasma, 75% corpuscles

4. 90% plasma, 10% corpuscles

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Plasma is the fluid component in which the blood cells are suspended. These blood cells include

Red blood cells (erythrocytes) - carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
White blood cells (leukocytes) - help fight infections and aid in the immune process.
Platelets (thrombocytes) - help in blood clotting.
Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and platelets (~45% of volume) suspended in plasma (~55% of volume). Thus, option A is correct.

................. part of the blood carries minerals, vitamins, sugar and other foods to the body's cells.

1. Plasma

2. Platelets

3. Red blood corpuscles

4. White blood corpuscles

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Blood is made up of plasma and corpuscles. Plasma is the pale coloured extracellular fluid that holds the blood cells. 55% of the body's total blood volume is plasma. It contains mostly water (up to 95% by volume), and dissolved proteins, glucose, clotting factors, electrolytes, hormones and carbon dioxide and helps in transportation. Whereas platelets, RBC and WBC do not carry minerals, other food to the body cells. Thus, option A is correct.

Which of the above statements is correct and which are false?
(1) Plasma constitutes 45% of the human blood.
(2) Albumin is a plasma protein, which helps in osmotic balance.
(3) Factors responsible for the blood clotting process are present in the blood.
(4) Plasma without clotting factors is called serum.
(5) Minerals are not generally found in blood.

1. Only 5 is wrong and all others 1 to 4 are correct.

2. 1 and 2 are correct and 3, 4 and 5 are wrong.

3. 2 and 4 are correct and 1, 3 and 5 are wrong.

4. 1 and 5 are correct and 2, 3 and 4 are wrong.

5. 2, 3 and 4 are correct and 1 and 5 are wrong.

Correct Option: E
Explanation:

Plasma is the pale yellow colored component of blood that makes up for 55% of the bloods total volume. The plasma though it is made up of 95% water it contains proteins such as albumins. The anticoagulant are present in the blood itself.  Blood serum is blood plasma without the coagulant factors.

The given table shows the result of intravenous injection of substances to determine the effect of each substance on normal body variables. Appropriate amount of time was allowed between injections and the substances did not interfere with one another.

Variable Baseline values Values after injecting substance A    Values after injecting substance B Values after injecting substance C Values after injecting substance D
Serum ${ Ca }^{ ++ }$ 2.3mmol/L 2.3mmol/L 2.3mmol/L 3.0mmol/L 2.3mmol/L
Serum ${ Na }^{ + }$ 135mmol/L 135mmol/L 135mmol/L 136mmol/L 138mmol/L
Serum glucose 5.6mmol/L 3.3mmol/L 5.6mmol/L 7.4mmol/L 5.6mmol/L

Which one of the following change in variable values is insignificant?

1. The change in serum glucose when substance A is injected.

2. The change in serum ${ Na }^{ + }$ when substance D is injected.

3. The change in serum ${ Ca }^{ ++ }$ when substance C is injected.

4. The change in serum glucose when substance C is injected.

5. The change in serum ${ Na }^{ + }$ when substance B is injected

Correct Option: E
Explanation:

The process by which the human body controls the internal ennvironment is known as Homeostasis . The addition  or presence of any variable tends to regulate the concentration of  any substance or   body temperature towards a constant.   examples of this homeostasis is seen in Human body wherein there is a regulation of the body temperature, concentration of Na+, Ca++ ions and glucose levels in blood plasma.   According to the given table showing the intravenous injection of substances to determine the effect of each substance on normal body variables, the change in serum Na+ when substance B is injected is insignificant.

Which of the following helps to maintain the fluidity of the blood?

1. Plasma

2. RBC

3. WBC

4. None of the above

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

One half of blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which are considered as solid part of blood and another half is composed of water, salts and proteins which is the fluid part of blood. The fluid part of blood is known as plasma. As the plasma consists of water it helps to maintain the fluidity of the blood.

So, the correct answer is 'Plasma'.

Raising of pH of blood shall result in

1. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase

2. Production of carbon monoxide and causing carbon monoxide poisoning

3. Non-release of carbon dioxide from carbonic acid and carbonates

4. Non-dissociation of oxygen from oxyhaemoglobin.

Correct Option: D
Explanation:
A decrease in pH (increase in $H^+$ ion concentration) various amino acid residues, such as Histidine 146 exist predominantly in their protonated form allowing them to form ion pairs that stabilize deoxyhemoglobin thereby having a lower affinity for oxygen. So with increased acidity, the hemoglobin binds less $O _2$.This is known as the Bohr effect. The binding affinity of hemoglobin to O2 is greatest under a relatively high pH and oxygen does not disassociate with hemoglobin under increased pH conditions.
So the correct answer is 'Non-dissociation of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin.'
- Hide questions