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From tasting to digestion - class-VIII

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Anxiety and eating spicy food together in an otherwise normal human, may lead to

  1. Diarrhoea and vomiting

  2. Hepatitis

  3. Indigestion

  4. Jaundice


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Indigestion is inability to properly digest food resulting in abdominal distension due to gas or flatus. It is caused by overeating, spicy food, anxiety and disturbed secretions of digestive tract.

Which of the following are swollen veins in anus or rectum, causing severe pain?

  1. Ulcer

  2. Hemorrhoids

  3. Intestinal cysts

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Haemorrhoids which is commonly known as piles occurs due to the swelling of veins in anus or rectum. 

Its symptoms include:-
  • Painless bleeding in the stool.
  • Itching and irritation around your anal part.
  • Swelling and discomfort in that area.
So, the correct option is 'Hemorrhoids'.

Which one of the following type of medicines is used for treating indigestion?

  1. Antibiotic

  2. Analgesic

  3. Antacid

  4. Antiseptic


Correct Option: A

In acute constipation, the faces are retained within the rectum as bowel movements occur irregularly, purgatives containing (A)  are generally used as they B  fluidity and volume of intestinal contents by drawing water from the blood into intestinal lumen by C.

  1. A - Magnesium; B - increase; C - endosmosis

  2. A- Sodium salt; B - decrease; C- exosmosis

  3. A - Magnesium; B - increase; C - exosmosis

  4. A - Potassium salt;  B - decrease; C- endosmosis 


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Constipation is a condition in which feces are retained within rectum as bowel movements occur irregularly. It is caused mainly due o poor diet and dehydration. Purgatives containing magnesium can be used to treat constipation. It is an osmotic laxative that increases the fluidity and volume of intestinal contents by drawing water from blood into intestinal lumen by endosmosis.
So the correct option is 'A- Magnesium; B - saltincrease; C- endosmosis'.

Ability of digesting milk decreases with age due to the lack of 

  1. lactase

  2. pepsin

  3. rennin

  4. none of these


Correct Option: A

In which of the following disease, yellow pigmentation of skin is seen?

  1. Jaundice

  2. Chickenpox

  3. Plague

  4. SARS


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Jaundice is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by high blood bilirubin levels. This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid. Concentration of bilirubin in blood plasma is normally below 1.2 mg/dL (<25µmol/L). A concentration higher than approx. 3 mg/dL (>50µmol/L) leads to jaundice.

Jaundice is often seen in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. It may also indicate leptospirosis or obstruction of the biliary tract, for example by gallstones or pancreatic cancer, or less commonly be congenital in origin.

Epidemic jaundice can occur in which of the following conditions?

  1. Hepatitia A

  2. Hepatitia B

  3. Hepatitia C

  4. Hepatitia D


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Hepatitis A is a disease caused by infection from the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV has been called as epidemic hepatitis, epidemic jaundice, infectious hepatitis, catarrhal jaundice, HA and type A hepatitis in the past.
Therefore, the correct answer is option A.

Which of the following in the blood stream is reduced most by excessive vomiting and diarrhoea?

  1. Calcium

  2. Sodium

  3. Potassium

  4. Iron


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Low blood sodium is also known as hyponatremia. Sodium is an electrolyte. It helps maintain the balance of water in and around your cells. Sodium is important for proper muscle and nerve function. It also keeps your blood pressure stable. Low blood sodium occurs when water and sodium are out of balance. Either there is too much water or too little sodium. Many factors can cause low blood sodium. Sodium levels may get too low if your body is losing too much water and electrolytes. It may also be a symptom of certain medical conditions. Causes of low sodium include: severe vomiting or diarrhea, taking certain medications, including antidepressants and pain medications, use of diuretics (water pills), drinking too much water during exercise (although this is very rare) etc. Calcium, potassium and iron are not reduced in blood stream by excessive vomiting and diarrhoea. Thus, option B is correct.

Diarrheal disease control program was started in 

  1. 1995.

  2. 2005.

  3. 1978.

  4. 1969.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The diarrheal disease control programme was started in the country in 1978. The main objective of the programme was to prevent death due to dehydration caused by diarrheal diseases among children under 5 years of age due to dehydration. 

Hand washing is one of the most effective ways of preventing the spread of viruses and bacteria that can cause diarrhoea. Also, few preventive procedures like always put foods that could spoil in the fridge, avoid eating raw meats, fish, and shellfish unless you are sure that they have been freshly prepared and are from a reliable source disinfect bench tops, stove tops, and chopping boards with a diluted bleach solution etc. 
Therefore, the correct answer is option C.

ORS, which is used for the treatment of diarrhea stands for

  1. Oral Recharging Solution

  2. Oral Reducing Solution

  3. Oral Replenishing Solution

  4. Oral Rehydration Solution


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is a fluid used to prevent or treat dehydration, most commonly that caused by diarrhea. It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salt added, while continuing to eat.

Which of the following are the symptoms of diarrhoea?

  1. Skin tenting and abdominal pain

  2. Pain in legs

  3. Heart attack

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Diarrhoea is a disease caused by the virus like norovirus and bacteria like clostridium, salmonella. It is characterised by the frequent passing of loose or watery stools. Common symptoms of diarrhoea include skin tenting, abdominal pain, nausea, dehydration, cramping, fever and bloody stools. Hence option A is correct.

At work, the best way to dry your hands after washing is

  1. Using a warm air dryer

  2. Give them a shake

  3. Using a cotton towel

  4. Using a paper towel


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

  •  After washing hands, we have to scrub between fingers and under nails, if a nail brush is available.
  •  Rinse with clear water. Finally, dry hands thoroughly using a clean paper or cloth towel or under an electric air dryer.
  •  To avoid introducing additional bacteria, do not rub your hands together under the electric air dryer. Hence, At work, the best way to dry your hands after washing is using a paper towel.
So, the correct answer is 'using paper towel'.

Loss of appetite, nausea, mild fever, yellowing of skin and dark coloured urine are symptoms of

  1. Typhoid

  2. Tuberculosis

  3. Jaundice

  4. Gastertoritis


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Jaundice occurs if there is a dysfunction of the normal metabolism or excretion of bilirubin. Common signs and symptoms seen in individuals with jaundice include: yellow discolouration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the whites of the eyes,  light-coloured stools, dark-colored urine and itching of the skin. The underlying disease process may result in additional signs and symptoms. These may include: nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, weakness, loss of appetite, headache, confusion, swelling of the legs and abdomen, and newborn jaundice.

Therefore, the correct answer is option C.

Diarrhoea is the ______ leading cause of death in children under five years old.

  1. 2nd

  2. 3rd

  3. 4th

  4. 5th


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old, and is responsible for killing around 7,60,000 children every year. Diarrhoeal diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and viruses are transmitted via the faecal-oral route. The pathogens discharged in the faeces of an infected person may enter the body of another susceptible person through the mouth. This may occur among children ingesting food or water contaminated with human excreta. 

Therefore, the correct answer is option A.

If your diet does not contain enough roughage, then you are likely to suffer from 

  1. Indigestion.

  2. Constipation.

  3. Diarrhea.

  4. Typhoid.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Roughage or dietary fiber as it is known is the indigestible portion of the carbohydrate in the food derived from plants. These are of two types - the soluble fiber and and the insoluble one. The insoluble fiber is metabolically inert and being prebiotic and ferment in the large intestine. These bulking fibers tends to absorb water as they move through the digestive system which helps in easy defecation. Hence, consuming a diet without roughage will lead to constipation.

If a person is adviced to intake ORS, it means he is suffering from

  1. Typhoid

  2. Jaundice

  3. Diarrhoea

  4. Measles


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Oral rehydration therapy is a fluid replacement strategy used to prevent or treat dehydration. Dehydration is most commonly caused by diarrhoea. It involves drinking water with required amounts of sugar and salt added present in oral rehydration salts (ORS).

Therefore, the correct answer is option C.

Jaundice is a disease of 

  1. Kidney

  2. Liver

  3. Pancreas

  4. Duodenum


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Jaundice refers to the yellow color of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by excess bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is formed by the breakdown of dead red blood cells in the liver. Normally, the liver gets rid of bilirubin along with old red blood cells. Jaundice occurs when the liver does not break down bilirubin the way it is supposed to because the liver might be damaged and unable to perform this process. 

Therefore, the correct answer is option B.

Diarrhea can be caused by 

  1. Bacteria

  2. Virus

  3. Both A and B

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Diarrhea is a condition that’s characterized by the appearance of loose, watery stools or a frequent need to have a bowel movement. Diarrhea can be related to a viral or bacterial infection, or it can be the result of food poisoning. Rotavirus, norovirus and adenovirus are the common viruses which causes diarrhea. Campylobacter, Shigella are the common bacterias which causes diarrhea. Hence option C is correct.

Which among the following are the symptoms of diarrhoea?

  1. Sunken eyes

  2. Dehydration due to loose motions

  3. Dry mouth and lips

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Frequent and profuse defecation of liquid faeces is called diarrhoea. It is caused by increased motility and decreased absorption by intestines. Frequent diarrhoea can result in dehydration, sunken eyes, dry mouth and lips, abdominal pain, bleeding from rectum etc. Hence option D is the correct answer. 

Preventive measures of constipation is

  1. High fibre diet

  2. Vaccination

  3. Antacids

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Dietary fiber is the indigestible portion of the carbohydrate in the food derived from plants. These are of two types - the soluble fiber and the insoluble one. The insoluble fiber is metabolically inert and being prebiotic and ferment in the large intestine. These bulking fibers tend to absorb water as they move through the digestive system which helps in easy defecation. Hence, consuming a diet with high fiber content will help prevent constipation.

Thus, the correct answer is option A.

Constipation occurs due to

  1. Colon cancer

  2. Eating disorder

  3. Hypothyroidism

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Constipation is a condition of the digestive system where an individual has hard feces that are difficult to expel. Mostly, it occurs due to high water absorption from the food present in the colon. Other cause may include colon cancer, eating disorder hypothyroidism, certain medication and ageing.
So, the correct answer is 'All of the above'.

Preventive measures of diarrhoea include

  1. Drinking boiled water

  2. Washing fruits and vegetables before use

  3. Both A and B

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
  1. Diarrhea is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. 
  2. These infections are often acquired from food or water that has been contaminated by feces, or directly from another person who is infected. 
  3. Diarrhea can be prevented by improved sanitation, clean drinking water, and hand washing with soap. Hence, the preventive measures of diarrhea include drinking of boiled water and washing fruits and vegetables before use.

So, the correct answer is 'both A and B'.

Infrequent bowel movement is

  1. Constipation

  2. Vomitting

  3. Loose mothion

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Infrequent bowel movement or tough bowel movements causes constipation. In this condition the feces is hardened. The main reasons of constipation are irritable bowel syndrome, uptake of antacid medicines, colon cancer, pregnancy, stress, unusual life style etc. So, the correct option is A.

Diarrhoea:: Constipation :: Enteritis:: 

  1. Diarrhoea

  2. Typhoid

  3. Tetanus

  4. Malaria


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
  • Diarrhoea is a condition in which faeces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form. 
  • Diarrhoea is one of the most common health complaints. It can range from a mild, temporary condition, to a potentially life-threatening one. 
  • Most cases of diarrhoea are caused by an infection in the gastrointestinal tract. The microbes responsible for this infection include:
  1. bacteria
  2. viruses and
  3. parasitic organisms
So, the correct answer is 'diarrhoea'.

Which of the following are common practices to prevent diarrhea?

  1. Washing of hands

  2. Use of sanitizers

  3. Both A and B

  4. Use of tissues


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Some of the common practices to prevent diarrhea are as follows: wash your hands before and after preparing food. In addition, wash your hands after handling uncooked meat, using the toilet, changing diapers, sneezing, coughing and blowing your nose. After putting soap on your hands, rub your hands together for at least 20 seconds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer when you can not get to a sink. Apply the hand sanitizer as you would use hand lotion, making sure to completely cover the fronts and backs of both hands. Use a product that contains at least 60 percent alcohol. 

Which of the following causes indigestion?

  1. Ulcer

  2. Thyroidism

  3. Pancreatitis

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Difficulty in digestion is called indigestion. It occurs as a symptom of diseases like gastroesophageal reflux disease, ulcers, thyroidism, pancratitis and gall bladder diseases. It can cause abdominal pain, burning stomach, nausea, belching and vomiting.

So, the answer is 'All of the above'.

Incomplete bowel evacuation is 

  1. Indigestion

  2. Vomiting

  3. Dysentery

  4. Constipation


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Constipation is a condition of digestive system of in which an individual has hard feces that are difficult to expel. It include incomplete and infrequent bowel movement.
So the correct answer is 'Constipation'.

Difficulty in digestion of food is called as

  1. Constipation

  2. Malfunction

  3. Indigestion

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Difficulty in digestion of food is called indigestion. It occurs as a symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease, ulcers or gall bladder disease. It cause abdominal pain, belching gas, nausea and vomiting.
So, the correct answer is 'Indigestion'.

Bilious is

  1. Greenish vomit

  2. Yellowish vomit

  3. Brownish vomit

  4. Blackish vomit


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Bilious is greenish vomit. The green colour is due to the presence of bile which is formed in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. Further, it is secreted in the duodenum. When this bile get mixed with the food and comes out with vomiting, it gives greenish appearance. It may be due to bowel obstruction or other health problems. So, the correct option is A.

Drug that can cause constipation is 

  1. Antiemetic

  2. Antiseptic

  3. Antidepressant

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Constipation is a condition of the digestive system in which an individual has hard feces to expel out of the body. Medication also cause constipation. Medication that cause constipation include opioids, certain antacids, antidepressants and anticholinergics.
So the correct answer is 'Antidepressant'.

Which of the following can be useful to avoid digestive problems?

  1. Balanced diet

  2. Drinking plenty of water

  3. Thoroughly masticating food

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Digestion is the process in which the food gets digested and broken down into smaller components which are absorbed by the cells of the body. If the process of digestion is not carried out properly, it might lead to bowel problems like constipation. There should be a balanced diet which includes fibers. Plenty of water should be taken which will prevent the problems like constipation and acidity. The food should be properly masticated before swallowing because the basic digestion starts in the mouth.

Thus, the correct answer is option D. 

A person is not suffering from indigestion. This can be analyzed as 

  1. Balanced diet is not taken.

  2. Taking diet in hurry.

  3. Thoroughly chewing the food.

  4. Doing exercise after meal.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Indigestion is the problem when the food is not digested properly. This may occur due to the acid in the stomach, exercise after meals, diet is taken in hurry, the food contains excess fat or the food is not chewed properly. When the person has taken a balanced diet which contains fibres, proteins, sugars, vitamins, then there are fewer chances that the person will suffer from the problems of indigestion. When the food is chewed properly, the food gets properly digested. 

Thus, the correct answer is option C. 

Identify the symptoms of indigestion.

  1. Fever

  2. Bloating

  3. Growling stomach

  4. Both B and C


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Digestion is the process in which the food gets digested and broken down into smaller components which are absorbed by the cells of the body. If the process if digestion is not carried out properly might lead to bowel problems like constipation. There is production of acid and gas in the stomach, which results in problems like bloating. There is movement of the gas in the stomach which is described as growling stomach. This may also be associated with pain in the stomach.

Thus, the correct answer is option D. 

When the peristaltic movements of the stomach and oesophagus reverse their normal direction, it causes

  1. Constipation

  2. Indigestion

  3. Vomiting

  4. Acidity


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Peristalsis pushes food through the lower oesophagus into the stomach. When the peristaltic movements of the stomach and oesophagus reverse their normal direction, it is called reverse peristalsis. In this situation, the contraction of abdominal muscles and diaphragm pushes food back through the oesophagus and out through mouth which results to vomiting. So, the correct option is C.

The jaundice is a physiological liver disease. It is most commonly caused by a

  1. Bacterium

  2. Virus

  3. Both A and B

  4. Helminth


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Jaundice is a disease which causes yellowing of skin and eyes which occurs due to the presence of the excess of pigment bilirubin. Pigment bilirubin is formed in the body as a result of the breakdown of worn out RBCs in the liver and is regularly excreted through kidneys. Jaundice occurs if the liver is not able to metabolize bilirubin and is caused by the virus. It can also lead to inflamed liver or obstructed bile duct. Too much bilirubin can leak into the tissues and causes yellowing of skin and eyes.

Thus, the correct answer is option B. 

A person took spoiled food. This would happen in him.

  1. Vomiting sensation

  2. Belching

  3. Burning in chest and throat

  4. All above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
  • When spoiled food is consumed, this may lead to indigestion. There are many problems which are associated with indigestion problems. 
  • There is vomiting sensation due to the acid-filled in the stomach. 
  • There are problems like belching in which the gas and the acid in the stomach are thrown towards the mouth. 
  • There is burning sensation in the heart, chest, and throat due to the excessive acid in the stomach.
  • Thus, the correct answer is option D. 

Anxiety and eating spicy food together by an otherwise normal human, may lead to

  1. Indigestion

  2. Jaundice

  3. Diarrhoea

  4. Vomiting


Correct Option: A

Common enteritis infection in India occurs by

  1. Mosquito bite

  2. Viruses

  3. Ingesting cysts with food and drinks

  4. Eating spice rich food


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Enteritis is most often caused by ingesting cysts with food and drinks that are contaminated with the cyst of bacteria or viruses. The germs settle in the small intestine and cause inflammation and swelling.


So, the correct option is ' Ingesting cysts with food and drinks'.

Increased liquidity of faecal discharge associated with reduced absorption of food is

  1. Vomiting

  2. Indigestion

  3. Constipation

  4. Diarrhoea


Correct Option: D

Raju looks older than his age. HIs body is fat and has pain in his leg. What kind of food did he use to eat?

  1. Fruits

  2. Pizza from market

  3. Soft drink from market

  4. Both B and C


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

An unbalanced diet like pizza, soft drinks and burger etc, lack essentials nutrients required by the body. This kind of poor diet cause obesity and fatigue and make the body unhealthy.

So the correct answer is 'Both B and C'.

Excretion of bile pigments in the urine indicates

  1. Anaemia

  2. Diabetes

  3. Rickets

  4. Jaundice


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases. It is responsible for the yellow colour of bruises and the yellow discolouration in jaundice. Its subsequent breakdown products, such as stercobilin, cause the brown colour of faeces.


So, the correct option is 'Jaundice'.

Which of the following is correct regarding jaundice?

  1. Skin turns yellow

  2. Eyes turn yellow

  3. Liver gets affected

  4. All of these


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

In jaundice, skin and eyes turns yellow and the liver gets affected. So, the correct answer is (d).

Microorganisms commonly causing diarrhoeal diseases are 

  1. Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter and Bacillus pertussis

  2. Clostridium tetani, Giardia, Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella, Shigella and Escherichia coli

  3. Escherichia coli, Giardia, Shigella, Campylobacter and Salmonella

  4. Neisseria, Treponema, Escherichia, Giardia, Shigella, Campylobacter and Salmonella


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Diarrhoea is a common symptom of gastrointestinal infections caused by a wide range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa. However, just a handful of organisms are responsible for most acute cases of childhood diarrhoea.  Other major bacterial pathogens include E. coli, Shigella, Campylobacter and Salmonella, along with V. cholerae during epidemics.

So, the correct option is 'Option C'.

Jaundice is due to 

  1. Excessive intake of curcuma

  2. Excessive intake of Sugar

  3. Pork

  4. Contaminated water


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Jaundice is not a disease. It is a physical finding on an exam. It can be present in newborns if they have a rapid breakdown of blood or if they were born before their livers matured. It can happen when the bile duct gets blocked by a gallstone or a tumour of the pancreas. It can happen in many forms of liver disease. Among these is hepatitis A, a viral infection. It is spread by contaminated food or water. So jaundice can appear due to drinking water contaminated with the virus.


So, the correct option is 'Contaminated water'.

Stool of a person is whitish grey coloured due to malfunction of which of the following organs?

  1. Pancreas

  2. Spleen

  3. Kidney

  4. Liver


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The stool of a person is whitish grey colored due to malfunction of 'liver'.

So the correct option is D.

A severe form of jaundice is caused by

  1. Hepatitis C

  2. HIV

  3. Hepatitis A

  4. Hepatitis B


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The most common skin manifestation associated with “hepatitisis the yellowing of the skin (jaundice) and the sclera, or white part of the eye. Jaundice may be associated with a newly acquired or acute hepatitis B infection.


So, the correct option is 'Hepatitis B'.

Ejection of stomach contents through the mouth is called _______.

  1. diarrhoea

  2. constipation

  3. vomiting

  4. indigestion


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Ejection of stomach contents through the mouth is called 'vomiting'.

So the correct option is C.

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

  1. Faecal accumulation in the rectum initiates a neural reflex causing an urge for its removal

  2. Irregular bowel movements cause constipation.

  3. In diarrhoea absorption of food is increased.

  4. All of these


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

In diarrhoea, absorption of food is reduced. So, the correct answer is (c)

A disorder called jaundice is primarily associated with 

  1. Skeletal system

  2. Nervous system

  3. Excretory system

  4. Digestive system


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Jaundice is a viral disease. It caused by hepatitis virus A, B, C and D. Hepatitis virus causes the liver inflammation. As the old red blood cells travel to the liver, where they are broken down, from the red blood cells broken a yellow coloured pigment is released called bilirubin. When the bilirubin level rises in the liver and it affects the bile duct, which affects the digestive system. 

So, the correct answer is 'Digestive system'

Vomit centre is located in ______.

  1. cerebrum

  2. medulla

  3. diencephalon

  4. pons


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Vomit center is located in 'medulla'.

So the correct option is B.

Anxiety and eating spicy food together in an otherwise normal human, may lead to

  1. indigestion

  2. jaundice

  3. diarrhoea

  4. vomiting.


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Anxiety and eating spicy food together in an otherwise normal human may lead to 'indigestion'.

So the correct option is A.

Excess bile pigments in urine indicate

  1. Anaemia

  2. Diabetes insipidus

  3. Jaundice

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a condition, which is characterised by a yellowish discolouration of the skin and the whites of the eyes. The yellow colouration is caused by an excess amount of the bile pigment known as bilirubin in the body.

Which of the following are the causes of indigestion?

  1. Anxiety

  2. Food poisoning

  3. Over eating

  4. All of these


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Anxiety, food poisoning and over-eating are the causes of indigestion. So, the correct answer is (d).

When children play bare footed in pools of dirty water and flood water, they may suffer from diseases like

  1. Leptospirusis and bilharzia

  2. Malaria, amoebic dysentery and leptospirosis

  3. Bilharzia, infective hepatitis and diarrhoea

  4. Guinea worm infection, elephantiasis and amoebic dysentery


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

When children play bare footed in pools of dirty water and flood water, they may suffer from diseases like Bilharzia, infective hepatitis and diarrhoea.

Consider the statements.
A. 'Oral Rehydration Solution' (ORS) should be given to cholera or diarrhoea patients at regular intervals.
B. Poliovirus is transmitted through food or water and ultimately affect central nervous system.
C. E.coli and Shigella bacteria are responsible for diarrhoea disease.
D. Rhinoviruses are responsible for common cold.
The correct statements are

  1. A and D

  2. A and B

  3. A, C and D

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Rehydration can be accomplished using solutions with higher sodium, i.e., 75-90 mmol/L. These are termed rehydration solutions (ORS). High sodium rehydrating solutions used to treat acute dehydration may be used for maintenance by giving the solution alternately on a 1-to-1 basis with a no-sodium or low-sodium fluid such as water or breast milk. Poliovirus is usually spread from person to person through infected faeces entering the mouth. It may also be spread by food or water containing human faeces and ultimately reaches the central nervous system (CNS). Virulent Escherichia coli strains cause either non inflammatory diarrhoea (watery diarrhoea) or inflammatory diarrhoea (dysentery with stools usually containing blood, mucus and leukocytes). Shigella is one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhoea worldwide. The characteristic clinical syndrome associated with rhinovirus infection is the common cold. 

Therefore, the correct answer is option A.

Two communicable diseases prevalent in developing countries caused by unsafe drinking water and bad sanitation are

  1. Acute diarrhoea and cancer

  2. Diarrhoea and schistosomiasis

  3. Onchocerciasis and leukaemia

  4. Rheumatism and malaria


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Schistosomiasis infection is acquired when people come into contact with fresh water infested with the larval forms of parasitic blood flukes, known as schistosomes. The microscopic adult worms live in the veins draining the urinary tract and intestines. Eggs from the mature worms are passed out (excreted) in the faeces or urine of an infected person. These eggs can get into fresh water if it is contaminated with human sewage. Symptoms can be bloody diarrhoea, abdominal pain, right upper quadrant pain, cramps.

Haemolytic jaundice is caused by a dominant gene but only 10% of the people actually develop it. What proportion of the children would be expected to develop the disease, if a heterozygous man marries a homozygous normal woman?

  1. 1/5

  2. 1/10

  3. 1/15

  4. 1/20


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Genotype of the man --> A$^H$A (where A$^H$ is the chromosome carrying dominant gene for haemolytic jaundice and A is the homologous chromosome carrying the normal allele).
Genotype of woman --> AA
P generation :          A$^H$A    X     AA


F$ _1$ generation :     A$^H$A   A$^H$A   AA    AA
                          (Diseased:Normal) = (1:1)
Only 10% of the people having diseased genotype actually suffer from haemolytic jaundice, this turns the ratio to (0.1:1).
Thus, proportion of children expected to develop the disease for the given cross= 0.1/2 (0.1 children are affected out of two children) = 1/20

Dry heaven is 

  1. Episodes of motion

  2. Episodes of vomiting

  3. Episodes of urination

  4. Episodes of acidity


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Vomiting is considered as the uncontrolled form of reflex action. During this response, the contents of the stomach are thrown in the upward direction and removed from the mouth. The contents of the stomach and water are lost during this process. This leads to drying of the tissues of the alimentary canal. This is called as dry heaven. This condition is observed when there are continuous episodes of vomiting.

Thus, the correct answer is option B. 

An uncontrolled reflex is 

  1. Vomiting

  2. Nausea

  3. Constipation

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Vomiting is a process of forcefully expelling the contents of the stomach out of the mouth. It is an involuntary process which means it is an uncontrolled reflex controlled by autonomic nervous system of brain.
So, the correct answer is 'Vomiting'.

Most effective treatment of constipation is 

  1. ORS

  2. PEG

  3. NICE

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Laxative PEG is a medicine used to treat constipation. It works by holding water in the stool to soften the stool so that it can expel out of the body easily. It also increases the number of bowel movement. It is also known as an osmotic-type laxative.
So the correct answer is 'PEG'.

Which of the following is used as antiemetic?

  1. Antihistamine

  2. Antibiotic

  3. Calcitonine

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against nausea and vomiting. Antiemetics are used to treat motion sickness and side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics and chemotherapy directed against cancer.
Antihistamine is an anti-allergen drug which is used as antiemetics.
So the correct answer is 'Antihistamine'.

Vomiting occurs as a symptom of 

  1. Appendicitis

  2. Meningitis

  3. Ulcer

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Vomiting is considered as the uncontrolled form of reflex action. During this response, the contents of the stomach are thrown in the upward direction and removed from the mouth. This response can be given against different stimulus like smell or taste. Appendicitis is the inflammation of the appendix. Meningitis is the inflammation of the brain or the spinal cord. The inflammation of these regions may disturb the normal process of digestion. This can result in vomiting. Vomiting may be caused due to ulcers which might result in indigestion. 

Thus, the correct answer is option D. 

Overeating can cause

  1. Decrease in BMR

  2. Constipation

  3. Malnutrition

  4. Vomiting


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Vomiting is a forceful expel of the stomach's content out of the mouth. It is an involuntary process. It is caused as a result of viral infection, food poisoning, overeating and coughing.
So, the correct answer is 'Vomiting'.

One of the following is not a common disorder associated with digestive system.

  1. Tetanus

  2. Diarrhoea

  3. Jaundice

  4. Dysentery


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Tetanus also called lockjaw disease is a serious bacterial infection that causes painful muscle spasms and can even lead to death, while diarrhea, jaundice, dysentery are disorders related to the digestive system.

So, the correct option is 'Tetanus'.

All of the following symptoms are found in jaundice except

  1. Disorders of hepato-billary system

  2. Abnormal secretion of pancreatic and gastric juices

  3. Bile duct obstruction

  4. Anaemia


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Jaundice is caused due to the high levels of bilirubin in the blood. High bilirubin levels could be due to obstruction in bile duct which would interrupt the drainage of bile containing the bilirubin or the chronic liver disease (hepato-biliary) which decrease the ability of  the liver to metabolize and excrete the bilirubin. Anemia leads to increased excretion of bilirubin in the blood and subsequent decrease in the number of RBC's. Abnormal secretion of pancreatic and gastric juices has nothing to do with bilirubin levels thus are not the symptoms found in jaundice patients.

Anxiety and eating spicy food together in an otherwise normal human may lead to

  1. Indigestion

  2. Jaundice

  3. Diarrhea

  4. Vomiting


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
When the food is not properly digested leading to a feeling of fullness, that condition, is indigestion. The causes of 
indigestion are inadequate enzyme secretion, anxiety, food poisoning, over eating and spicy food.

Diarrhea through food can be avoided by

  1. Eating raw food

  2. Refrigerating the food

  3. Thawing of food again and again

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Serve food right away or refrigerate it after it has been cooked or reheated. Leaving food out at room temperature can encourage growth of bacteria. Wash work surfaces frequently to avoid spreading germs from one food item to another. Use the refrigerator to thaw frozen items or try putting plastic-wrapped frozen items in a bowl of cold water to thaw. 

Which symptoms are commonly seen in case of diarrhea?

  1. Blood in stool

  2. Death

  3. Blood clot

  4. Nausea


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Signs and symptoms associated with diarrhea may include: frequent loose watery stools, abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, fever, blood in the stool, bloating, etc. 

Sheela's mother said eat slowly and chew the food properly. Why did Sheela's mother say this statement?

  1. It helps in respiration.

  2. It is a good timepass.

  3. It helps in proper digestion of food.

  4. None of the above.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Chewing is an important step in digestion and further absorption of vital nutrients. The action of chewing helps in break down our food mechanically into finer texture, thus increasing the surface area for saliva to do its work.

So the correct answer is 'It helps in proper digestion of food'.

Chanda takes a piece of bread and chews for 5 times and Raju chew a piece of bread for 20-25 times. Who has better digestion of bread?

  1. Chanda only

  2. Raju only

  3. Both Chanda and Raju

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The action of chewing helps to break down the food present in the buccal cavity into finer fixture thus increasing the surface area for saliva to do its work surface are for the action of salivary enzymes so, it should be chewed 20-25 times.

So the correct answer is 'Raju only'.

Raju got stomach ache. Which of the following could be a reason?

  1. He ate food at seven in the evening.

  2. He drank water after eating food.

  3. He did not chew the food properly.

  4. He did not wash his hands properly after eating food.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

  • Chewing breaks your food down from large particles into smaller particles that are more easily digested.
  •  This also makes it easier for your intestines to absorb nutrients from the food particles as they pass through.
  •  Chewing properly allows your stomach to work more efficiently and break down your food faster. Hence, Raju got the stomach ache as he did not chew the food properly.
So, the correct answer is 'He did not chew the food properly'.

Which of the following activities improves digestion?

  1. Swallowing

  2. Chewing

  3. Dehydration

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Chewing is an important step in digestion. It helps in breaking down of food mechanically into finer texture and thus increase surface area of food for the action of saliva. Hence it improves digestion.
So, the correct answer is 'Chewing'.

A piece of bread should be chewed .......... times and then swallowed. 

  1. 2

  2. 10

  3. 20

  4. 5


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Chewing of food is the process of mastication of food. It is important to break down the food mechanically by teeth so that it gets easily mixed with saliva and swallowed. The food should be chewed 20 times before swallow it to increase its surface area.

So the correct answer is '20'. 

Identify the function of teeth.

  1. Chewing of food

  2. Mixing of saliva with food

  3. Swallowing of food

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The function of teeth is chewing of food. It chewing is an important step in direction because it helps to break down the food mechanically, and thus increase the surface area for saliva to do its work.

So the correct answer is 'Chewing of food'. 

Chewing is required for

  1. Solubilisation of food

  2. Enjoying the taste of food

  3. Decreasing surface area of food

  4. Increasing surface area of food


Correct Option: D

The major utility of breaking up of food into small bits during chewing is

  1. To reduce surface area of the food eaten up

  2. To increase surface area of the food eaten up

  3. To make the food soluble

  4. To enjoy taste of food


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Chewing breaks the large food particles into the small. The mechanical digestion of food in the mouth involves converting bite-sized pieces of food into smaller particles. This has the effect of increasing the surface area of the food particles and allowing saliva to be thoroughly mixed with them.

So, the correct answer is 'To increase the surface area of the food eaten up'.

A condition in which feces are discharged from the bowel frequently and in liquid for 

  1. Pneumonia

  2. Diarrhea

  3. Typhoid

  4. Malaria


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Diarrhea is the frequent passage of loose, watery, soft stools with or without abdominal bloating, pressure, and cramps. People of all ages can suffer from diarrhea, it can be caused by viruses or bacteria. Most common symptom is watery, liquid stool. Along with this, there are abdominal cramps, fever, bloating, dehydration etc.
Therefore, the correct answer is option B.

Mode of infection in diarrhoea is

  1. Food

  2. Water

  3. Air

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

  1. Diarrhea is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss.
  2.  Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and irritable behavior. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe. 
  3. These infections are often acquired from food or water that has been contaminated by feces, or directly from another person who is infected. Hence, the mode of infection of diarrhea is food.

So, the correct answer is 'food'.

Diarrhoea can be prevented by

  1. Improved sanitation

  2. Clean drinking water

  3. Both A and B

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Many cases of diarrhea are spread from person-to-person. The following precautions can help an individual avoid diarrhea and other viral or bacterial infections:

Improvement in sanitation for example, Children should be instructed to wash their hands frequently, especially after using the toilets.
Practice safe food handling. Always wash hands before and after handling food.
Drink clean drinking water and never eat raw or undercooked meat or seafood. Hence option C is correct.

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