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Biodiversity loss and need for conservation - class-XII

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Asseration : Recently, the government of India instituted the 'Amrita Devi Bishnoi Wildlife Protection Award'.

Reason : We can speed up the reforestation by planting trees.

  1. Both Assertion and Reason are correct and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion.

  2. Both Assertion and Reason are correct but Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion.

  3. Assertion is correct but Reason is incorrect.

  4. Both Assertion and Reason are incorrect.

  5. If the Assertion is false but Reason is true.

Correct Option: B

'Amrita Devi Bishnoi Wild Life Protection Award' is given for significant contribution in the field of wildlife protection, which is recognised as having having done exemplary work for the protection of wildlife. A cash award of rupees one lakh is presented to individuals / institutions involved in wildlife protection.

Reforestation means replanting of forest trees in areas, which were once having dense forests but the forests were later on destroyed by cutting of trees in large numbers. 
Thus, the correct answer is option B.

Which of the following is associated with evil quartet?

  1. Three horsemen

  2. Hunters

  3. Four horsemen

  4. None of the above

Correct Option: C
The evil quartet also known as four horsemen of the apocalypse explains the four main human-induced causes of extinction which were habitat degradation, fragmentation, the introduction of exotic species and over-harvesting. Thus, the correct answer is option B.

Biogas is a result of ______

  1. Anaerobic process

  2. Aerobic process

  3. Chemical agents

  4. Mechanical process

Correct Option: A

Biogas constitutes 50-80% methane and rest carbon dioxide. Methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic matter. 

Which of the following has to be observed to protect wildlife?

  1. Prevent deforestation

  2. Place ban on poaching

  3. Place ban on visiting sanctuaries

  4. Both A and B

Correct Option: D

Which among the following help in replacing the use of conventional energy?

  1. Solar energy

  2. Coal

  3. $\displaystyle { KH } _{ 2 }{ PO } _{ 4 }$

  4. Petrol

Correct Option: A

As the population is growing at the fast pace, it is very important to manage the use to conventional resources. Replacing or reducing the conventional natural resource by non-conventional resources shall help in benefiting the future generation.

Wild buffalo is an endangered species because

  1. Its population diminishing

  2. It has become extinct

  3. It is found exclusively in a particular area

  4. Its poaching is strictly prohibited

Correct Option: A

An endangered species is a native species that faces a significant risk of extinction in the near future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

Find the odd one out:

  1. Methanobacteria

  2. Pseudomonas

  3. Clostridium

  4. E.coli

Correct Option: D

Biogas constitutes 50-80% methane and rest carbon dioxide. Methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic matter. Methanobacteria is responsible for production of methane. Pseudomonas and Clostridium is responsible anaerobic degradation of complex organic polymers. E.coli is not involved in the production of biogas.

Best method to preserve the wild relatives of plants is

  1. By growing them in natural habitats

  2. Gene library

  3. By storing seeds

  4. Cryopreservation

Correct Option: A

The genetic material from wild varieties can be preserved either in gene banks or in-situ preservation. Gene bank saves the genes and other regenerative material from a wide range of plants. In-situ, is the preservation of wild variety of plants in the fields and forests where they grow. Thu, the correct answer is option A.

Wild life (protection) Act, 1972 includes which of the following objectives?

  1. Restriction and Prohibition on hunting of animals.

  2. Setting up and managing sanctuaries and National Parks.

  3. Protection of specified plants.

  4. All of the above.

Correct Option: D

The Wildlife Act was passed in 1972 to protect the wildlife and their habitats. The major activities and provisions in the act can be summed up as follows: 

1. It defines the wildlife related terminology. 
2. Enactment of an All India Wildlife Protection Act (1972). 
3. It provides for the appointment of wildlife advisory Board, Wildlife warden, their powers, duties etc. 
4. Becoming a party to the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES, 1976). 
5. Launching a national component of UNESCOs Man and Biosphere Programme (1971). 
6. Under the Act, comprehensive listing of endangered wildlife species was done for the first time and prohibition of hunting of the endangered species was mentioned. 
7. Protection to some endangered plants. 
8. The Act provides for setting up of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries etc. 
9. The Act provides for the constitution of Central Zoo Authority. 
10. There is provision for trade and commerce in some wildlife species with license for sale, possession, transfer etc.
11. The act imposes a ban on the trade or commerce in scheduled animals. 
12. It provides for legal powers to officers and punishment to offenders.
Therefore, the correct answer is option D.

Wildlife protection act was enacted in India in 

  1. 1947

  2. 1962

  3. 1972

  4. 1992

Correct Option: C

The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species. The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants.

Therefore, the correct answer is option C.

The species though insignificant in number; determine the existence of many other species in a given ecosystem. Such species is known as

  1. Extinct species

  2. Keystone species

  3. Endemic species

  4. Sacred species

Correct Option: B

A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. Such species are described as playing a critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community, affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem and helping to determine the types and numbers of various other species in the community. 

Extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Endemic species is one that is only found in that region and nowhere else in the world. They are of conservation concern because they are not widespread and may be confined to only one or two protected areas. 
Certain life forms, often a keystone species, are sacred to indigenous peoples because they present a body of knowledge and ways leading to balanced relationship with life.

The environment as a self sustaining system is mainly preserved by 

  1. Man

  2. Animals

  3. Trees

  4. Wild life

Correct Option: D

Environment is preserved as a self-sustaining system by wildlife. Wildlife includes various living organism which are interdependent on each other and able to meet the basic requirement for survival.

Which of the following bird has gained importance as wild life in recent year?

  1. Phesant

  2. Egret

  3. Indian bustard

  4. Pelican

Correct Option: C

Wildlife is the most important natural resorce which needs to be conserved. The great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) or Indian bustard is a bustard that can be traced in India and the adjoining regions of Pakistan. It is characterized by a horizontal body and long bare legs giving it an ostrich-like appearance, this bird is among the heaviest of the flying birds. Once common on the dry plains of the Indian subcontinent, as few as 250 individuals were estimated in 2011 to survive and the species is critically endangered by hunting and loss of its habitat, which consists of large expanses of dry grassland and scrub. These birds are often found associated in the same habitat as blackbuck. In Rajasthan, the largest stronghold of the 'Great Indian Bustard', became the first state to announce a plan to recover its critically endangered state bird.

So, the correct answer is option C.

Convention on Biological Diversity" is also denoted by which among the following?

  1. COP 10

  2. COP 11

  3. COP 12

  4. COP 15

Correct Option: A

"Nagoya Protocol " is related to which among the following?

  1. International Finance

  2. Biodiversity

  3. Pharmaceutical Industry

  4. Global Warming

Correct Option: B

IUCN is also called as

  1. Man and Biosphere program

  2. World Conservation Union

  3. World Conservation Consortium

  4. World Wide Conservation Union

Correct Option: B

What is the official name of IUCN?

  1. World Wide Fund for Nature

  2. World Conservation Union

  3. United Nations Environment Programme

  4. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Correct Option: B

The Earth Summit held at Rio de janeiro in 1992 resulted into

  1. Computation of Red List

  2. Establishment of Bioshere Reserves

  3. Convention on Biodiversity

  4. IUNC

Correct Option: C

the Earth summit which took place in Rio de Janeiro Brazil in 1992 was related to conservation of biodiversity which is a raging topic now.

So, the correct option is 'Convention on Biodiversity'

Which one of the following strongly threatens biodiversity?

  1. Destruction of mutual habitats and vegetation and shifting cultivation

  2. Inaccessible habitats in the Himalayas

  3. Fragile ecosystems such as mangroves and wetlands

  4. Creation of biosphere reserves

Correct Option: A

Loss of habitat or destruction which is a result of increasing human population in the region has put heavy pressure on the food requirements.

So, the correct option is 'Destruction of mutual habitats and vegetation and shifting cultivation'.

Which one of the following is commonly found in the Alpine Zone of the Himalaya?

  1. Atropha Belladona

  2. Cathranthus roseus

  3. Papaver sominferum

  4. Rauwalfia sepentina

Correct Option: A

Conservation of plant diversity is a/an ______________.

  1. Aesthetic necessity

  2. Economic necessity

  3. Genetic necessity

  4. Environmental necessity

Correct Option: A

Which one of the following is correct to measure 13-diversity?

  1. Species richness within an ecosystem

  2. Species richness equitability

  3. Degree of change in species composition along an environmental gradient

  4. Species diversity of several habitats in a large geographical region

Correct Option: A

Who gave rivet popper hypothesis?

  1. E.P. Odum

  2. Paul Ehrlich 

  3. Ram Deo Misra

  4. A. Tansley

Correct Option: B

Paul Ehrlich, an ecologist, gave the rivet popper hypothesis. The hypothesis explains the important role played by each species in an ecosystem. It compares the ecosystem with an airplane and says if you keep popping rivets (species), the plane will no longer fly. It also explains the role of different species in an ecosystem.

So, the correct answer is 'Paul Ehrlich'.

Restoration of ecological equilibrium in mined areas can be achieved through

  1. Revegetation of the mined habitats

  2. Conversion of mined habitats into agricultural ecosystems

  3. Prevention of soil erosion

  4. Prevention of grazing

Correct Option: A

A number of world's ecosystems have undergone significant degradation leading to a negative impact on the biodiversity and livelihood. One such ecosystem that has depleted over the years is the mined habitats. Since the mineral rich areas are also rich in forest resources. However continuous mining activities tend to change the ecological equilibrium. Restoration of the ecological equilibrium of the mined areas can be achieved by understanding the ecology, plant succession and soil types of the place and revegetation of the spoils .

Which monkey has prehensile tail?

  1. Spider monkey

  2. Semnopithecus

  3. Rhesus monkey

  4. Bonnet monkey

Correct Option: A

There are two main groups of monkeys, 'New World monkeys' and 'Old World monkeys. Monkeys in South and Central America are called as 'New World monkeys', whereas monkeys in Africa, Asia, and Europe are called as 'Old World monkeys'. New World monkeys include marmosets, capuchins, howler monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and spider monkeys. New World monkeys are arboreal, and some have long, slender limbs, that permit easy movement in the trees. A few have prehensile tails capable of wrapping around branches and serving as fifth limbs. Thus, the correct answer is option A.

All non-domesticated and non-cultivated biota in the natural environment are termed 

  1. Wildlife

  2. Ordinary life

  3. Domesticated life

  4. Stray life

Correct Option: A
 The term biota refers to a group of animals, plants or other organisms that share the same geographical region. All non domesticated and non cultivated biota in natural environment are called wild life. E.g. Lion, deer etc and plants like sunflower, thyme present in the natural environment.
So, the correct answer is 'Wildlife'

The phrase "evil quartet" was coined by

  1. G. Donnan

  2. J. Daimond

  3. P. Erlich

  4. None of the above

Correct Option: B

Jared Diamond, a biologist coined the phrase 'evil quartet' to explain the four main human-induced causes of extinction which were habitat degradation, fragmentation, the introduction of exotic species and over-harvesting. Thus, the correct answer is option B.

Extinction of biodiversity is caused by the habitat degradation, fragmentation, over-harvesting and introduction of new species, described as

  1. Evil quartet

  2. Four horsemen

  3. Both A and B

  4. Succession

Correct Option: C

Evil quartet or four horsemen of the ecological apocalypse explains the four main human-induced causes of extinction which were habitat degradation, fragmentation, the introduction of exotic species and over-harvesting. Thus, the correct answer is option C.

Which of the following is not a measure to conserve environment ?

  1. Conservation of soil from erosion

  2. Crop rotation

  3. Use of compost

  4. None of these

Correct Option: D

Rotation of crop or mixed cropping protects the fertility of soil and provide which yield. Use of compost (organic matter) to enrich the soil.

Why should we conserve biodiversity?

  1. We should preserve the biodiversity we have inherited

  2. A loss of diversity may lead to a loss of ecological stability

  3. Both A and B

  4. None of these

Correct Option: C

Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on the Earth and the variations within species. It is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems. we must preserve it as we have inherited it and maintain the ecological stability.

A biosphere reserve conserves and preserves

  1. Wild animals

  2. Land

  3. Natural vegetation

  4. All of the above

Correct Option: D

An area which is conserved to protect the biodiversity and culture of that area is known as biosphere reserve. A biosphere reserve is consisted of many protected areas like sanctuaries, national parks, lakes, lands mountains etc. 

Which one of the following is not a conservation category of wildlife?

  1. Vulnerable

  2. Endangered

  3. Endemic

  4. Both A and B

Correct Option: C
Vulnerable species are those that have been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the conditions harming their survival and reproduction are improved.
Endangered species are those that are at the risk of extinction.
Endemic species are those that exist only in one particular geographic region.
Thus the correct answer is option C.

The first plants to reappear in a badly burned forest area will most probably be

  1. Liverworts

  2. Ferns

  3. Grasses

  4. Mosses

Correct Option: B
The ferns have two stages in their life cycle spore-bearing stage and sexually reproducing stage. Spore has a thick spore wall and is resistant to high temperatures and other environmental changes. The first plants to reappear in a badly burned forest area will most probably be ferns because its spores are resistant to fire.
So, the correct answer is 'Ferns'

Wildlife refers to

  1. Any living organism kept in cage

  2. Any living organism present in sanctuary

  3. Any plant species growing in garden

  4. Any living organism in its natural habitat

Correct Option: D
Wildlife refers to non-domesticated animal species that lives in natural habitat, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Thus, the correct answer is option D.

What are the control methods that are to be adopted to restore balance in the ecosystems?

  1. Rain water harvesting for conservation and management of water.

  2. Conservation of ocean resources and preservation of marine life.

  3. Public awareness programmes concerning conservation of wildlife.

  4. All of the above.

Correct Option: D

We know that the level of the ground is decreasing day by day due to its excessive use. As a result, the world is facing serious water issues. Apart from this, oceans form a resource for the development of electricity from water and form a habitat for a vast variety of marine organisms. Marine organisms form a major part of biodiversity fauna. All these are natural resources necessary to maintain the balance of the ecosystem.

So, option D "All of these"is the correct answer.

What shall be the effect of destruction of wildlife?

  1. Wild gene of disease resistance will not be obtained

  2. Soil erosion

  3. Floods and saline lake

  4. Greenhouse effect

Correct Option: A

Destruction of wildlife will cause a drastic effect in an ecosystem. One of them will be wild gene of disease resistance will not be obtained as the gene pool of the particular area will be disturbed. There will no major effect in soil erosion, floods or greenhouse effect which is caused by other factors like deforestation and greenhouse gases respectively. 

Therefore, the correct answer is option A.

What is a keystone species?

  1. A species which makes up only a small proportion of the total biomass of a community, yet has a huge impact on the community's organization and survival.

  2. A common species that has plenty of biomass, yet has a fairly low impact on the community's organization.

  3. A rare species that has minimal impact on the biomass and on other species in the community.

  4. A dominant species that constitutes a large proportion of the biomass and which affects many other species.

Correct Option: A

A keystone species is often a dominant predator whose removal allows a prey population to explode and often decreases overall diversity. Other kinds of keystone species are those, such as coral or beavers, that significantly alter the habitat around them and thus affect large numbers of other organisms.

The best way to conserve our water resources is

  1. Rain water harvesting

  2. Sustainable water utilization

  3. Encouragement of natural regeneration of vegetation

  4. All of the above

Correct Option: D

Human activities like deforestation, pollution, global warming etc is  a major threat to the natural resources.The scarcity of water is  a common problem nowadays which needs serious attempts.Rainwater harvesting is the method of conservation of rainwater by reusing the stored water for several domestic purposes. The rainwater is collected from various hard surfaces such as rooftops and or other man-made above ground hard surfaces.

Sustainable water utilization is the vision of the management of natural resources like water and its proper utilization.
Encouragement of natural regeneration of vegetation is also one of the methods to conserve water resource. It will usually encourage species, that are already plentiful in the area and will ensure the vegetation is directly suited to the site. As all of the above are ways to conserve our water resources. 
So, the correct answer is option D.

When is the 'World Wild Life Week' observed?

  1. First week of September

  2. Last week of September

  3. Third week of October

  4. Last week of October

  5. First week of October

Correct Option: E

In order to arouse a general awakening in the common man in favour of protection of wildlife, the 'Indian Board of Wild Life' (IBWL) decided to observe the 'Wildlife Week' and since then from October 2 - 8 every year organize different activities related to wildlife conservattion to commemorate this week. 

Every year around this time (October 2 to 8) governments, environmentalists, activists, educators organize different activities to accelerate the awareness of wildlife conservation among people. 
India, being a mega-storehouse of various species, is also able to manage several conferences, awareness programmes, and public meetings among the nature lovers. Schools and educational institutions organize events such as wildlife related movie screening, painting competition/essay writing/ debate competition for young children with wild life as the theme. 

The country which hosted the first World Earth Summit on conservation of environment is 

  1. India

  2. Brazil

  3. Peru

  4. Spain

Correct Option: B

From 3 - 14 June 1992, Rio de Janeiro in Brazil hosted the 'United Nations Conference on Environment and Development' (UNCED). The focus of this conference was the state of the global environment and the relationship between economics, science and the environment in a political context. The conference concluded with the 'Earth Summit', at which leaders of 105 nations gathered to demonstrate their commitment to sustainable development. 

Wild Life of nature is renamed as

  1. World Wild Life conservation of nature

  2. World Wild Life of nature

  3. World Wild Fauna

  4. World Wild Life Fund

Correct Option: D

The wildlife is a valuable resource of our country which needs to be protected from the threats imposed by human activities. Several regulatory bodies have laid certain formulations to protect them. The 'World Wide Fund for Nature' (WWF)  deals with the issues regarding the conservation, research, and restoration of the environment. It is an international non-governmental organization founded on April 29, 1961, and isIt was formerly named the 'World Wildlife Fund', which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world's largest conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1,300 conservation and environmental projects. 

Which of the following is considered poor man's timber?

  1. Mango wood

  2. Bamboo

  3. Acacia wood

  4. Ecalyptus wood

Correct Option: B

Bamboo is commonly called as the poor man's timber because it is used in all aspects of life. Bamboo is also an icon of versatility. It forms part of the paper we use every day and of the houses we build. By virtue of its unique properties like quick growth, tensile strength, availability and renewability, it has the epithet of 'poor man's timber'.

'Central Public Health Engineering Research Institute' is situated at

  1. Jaipur

  2. Nagpur

  3. Bihar

  4. None of the above

Correct Option: B

'The National Environmental Engineering Research Institute' (NEERI), Nagpur was established in 1958 as 'Central Public Health Engineering', when environmental concerns were limited to human health. Shrimati Indira Gandhi, gave new name to the Institute as 'National Environmental Engineering Research Institute' in the year 1974.

The protection of animal species is important, because they are 

  1. Lovely creatures

  2. Useful to humans as part of ecosystem

  3. To be studied by zoologists

  4. None of the above

Correct Option: B

Protection of animal species is important, because they are useful for humans as a part of ecosystem. They play a significant role in food web also. Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans. Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. Thus, the correct answer is option B.

Organism living in cold areas have shorter extremities than the organisms of warm area. It states

  1. Graubaer's law

  2. Dollo's law

  3. Allen's law

  4. Bergman's law

Correct Option: C

The climatic conditions in a particular area regulate the  physiological and the morphological characteristics of plants or animals. Allen's rule is a biological rule by Joel Asaph Allen in 1877. It states that the organism adjusts in the given climatic conditions by either minimizing exposed surface area to minimize heat loss in cold climates or maximizing exposed surface area to maximize heat loss in hot climates. The rule predicts that endotherms from hot climates usually have ears, tails, limbs, snouts, etc that are long and thin, while equivalent animals from cold climates usually have shorter and thicker versions of those body parts. 

Allen's rule predicts that endothermic animals with the same body volume should have different surface areas that will either aid or impede their heat dissipation.

Which of the following are related to the board utilization arguments of conserving biodiversity?

  1. Plants as the source of medicines

  2. Trees used for firewood

  3. Pollination in plants

  4. It is the source of industrial products

Correct Option: A

All of the following are included in 'Ex-situ conservation' except.

  1. Wildlife safari parks

  2. Sacred groves

  3. Botanical gardens

  4. Seed banks

Correct Option: A

Ex-situ conservation is the conservation and maintenance of samples of living organisms outside their natural habitat, in the form of whole plants, seed, pollen, vegetative propagules, tissue or cell cultures. These ex situ collections of living organisms (living collections, seed banks, pollen, vegetative propagules, tissue or cell cultures) need to be managed according to strict scientific and horticultural standards to maximize their value for conservation purposes. Thus they need to be correctly identified, documented and managed and an efficient information management system put in place. Integrated conservation management can also ensure that ex situ collections can support in situ conservation, through habitat restoration and species recovery. 

So the correct option is 'Wildlife safari parks'.

Extinction is caused by ............

  1. Deforestation

  2. Over-exploitation of animals

  3. The destruction of aquatic habitats by pollution

  4. All of the above

Correct Option: D

Extinction means a group of species, family or larger group that have no living member. The extinction can be caused due to various factors such as deforestation (cutting down of trees), Over exploitation of organisms for human good, or by the destruction of the natural habitat or organism. 

So, the correct answer is 'All of the above'.

Evil quartet is related to

  1. Loss of biodiversity

  2. Loss of alien species

  3. Loss of standing crop

  4. Loss of climax community

Correct Option: A
Jarod Diamond in 1984 listed four principal mechanisms for the loss of biodiversity. It was known as the 'Evil quartet'. It was also known as ‘four horsemen of the ecological apocalypse. The four mechanisms were:-
a) overhunting (or overexploitation),
b) introduced species,
c) habitat destruction and
d) chains of linked extinctions (trophic cascades, or co-extinctions).
So, the correct answer is 'Loss of biodiversity'.

American water plant that has become a troublesome water weed in India is

  1. Cyperus rotundus

  2. Eichhornia crassipes

  3. Typha latifolia

  4. Trapa bispinosa

Correct Option: B

Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as water hyacinth, is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon basin. It is often considered a highly problematic invasive species outside its native range. When not controlled, water hyacinth will cover lakes and ponds entirely; this dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish and other aquatic animals. Hence option B is correct.

Wildlife conservation means the protection and preservation of

  1. Ferocious wild animals only

  2. Wild plants only

  3. Non-cultivated plants and non-domesticated animals

  4. All the above living in natural habitat

Correct Option: D
Wildlife conservation is the strategy to protect wild plant and animal species and their habitats. The goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure that nature will be maintained for next generations and also to recognise the importance of wildlife
So, the correct answer is 'All the above living in natural habitat'

World wild life week is

  1. First week of September

  2. First week of October

  3. Third week of October

  4. Last week of October

Correct Option: B

World wild life week is celebrated on October - 2nd to 8th. It is celebrated to  protect the fauna. It was started in 1952 with some major steps in order to protect the Indian wild life  and enrich the diversity in the fauna. Indian Board of Wild Life was a regulatory body set up by the Indian government to spread awareness for wild life preservation.

The Wildlife Protection Act was introduced in 

  1. 1972

  2. 1981

  3. 1986

  4. 1991

Correct Option: A

The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act enacted for protection of plants and animal species.

Rivet popper hypothesis was given by

  1. Paul Ehrlich

  2. Tansley

  3. E.P. Odum

  4. None of the above

Correct Option: A

Rivet hypothesis was given by Paul Ehrlich. It states that loss of many species in an ecological unit decreases ecosystem functioning. 

So, the correct answer is 'Paul Ehrlich'

Which of the following is true about conservation and preservation?
I. Protects the ecosystem from destruction
II. Prevents the depletion of natural resources.
III. Maintains the population of endangered plants and animal species.

  1. I only

  2. I and II only

  3. II and III only

  4. I, II and III

Correct Option: D
Conservation is the sustainable use and management of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable. Preservation is the strict keeping aside of natural resources so as to prevent the use or contact of resources by humans or by human intervention. 
Conservation ensures that resources are not consumed faster than they can be replaced. It also ensures that  sufficient quantities are maintained for future generations to utilise. Thus, it is involved in preventing the depletion of natural resources. The main purpose of conservation and preservation is to protect the ecosystem from destruction due to increased use of or consumption of resources. Conservation is also carried out to protect plant and animal species from being extinct. It maintains the population of endangered species by protecting and restoring the habitats and maintaining the essential ecological processes and life-support systems. 
Thus, the correct answer is option D.

Rivet popper hypothesis was given by

  1. Paul Ehrlich

  2. Alexander von Humboldt

  3. David Tilman

  4. Robert May.

Correct Option: A

It is a theory that entails about the conditions of ecosystem wherein a significant loss of a certain species affects the functions and diversity of an ecological community. This hypothesis was given by Paul Ehrlich who used an airplane to explain ecosystem and the passengers as the rivet in the ecosystem. If certain biological areas lose several important species it can lead to a total collapse of ecosystem functions, thus this hypothesis presupposed that communities consist of relatively specialized species with limited ability to compensate each other thereby the vanished of a certain species are important to the performance of the ecosystem. The rate of species loss affects the entire function of ecological unit.  Rivet hypothesis asserts that each species losses to an ecological unit can decrease ecosystem functions although the decrease is rather slow as more species are eliminated. In this depiction any loss of diversity is clearly noticeable. 

So the correct option is 'Paul Ehrlich'.

The narrowly utilitarian arguments for biodiversity conservation include which of the following from the given list?
(i) Industrial products like dyes, lubricants
(ii) Ecosystem services like photosynthesis
(iii) Pollinators layer of bees, birds and bats
(iv) Firewood, fibre and construction material 
(v) The aesthetic pleasure of walking through thick woods 
(vi) Products of medicinal importance
(vii) Watching spring flowers in full bloom

  1. (i), (ii), (v) and (vii)

  2. (ii), (iii), (v) and (vii)

  3. (i), (iv) and (vi)

  4. (iii), (v), (vi) and (vii)

Correct Option: C
The narrowly utilitarian arguments for conserving biodiversity are
obvious; humans derive countless direct economic benefits from nature food (cereals, pulses, fruits), firewood, fibre, construction material,
industrial products (tannins, lubricants, dyes, resins, perfumes ) and
products of medicinal importance. More than 25 per cent of the drugs
currently sold in the market worldwide are derived from plants and 25,000
species of plants contribute to the traditional medicines used by native
peoples around the world. Nobody knows how many more medicinally
useful plants there are in tropical rain forests waiting to be explored.
With increasing resources put into ‘bioprospecting’ (exploring molecular,
genetic and species-level diversity for products of economic importance),
nations endowed with rich biodiversity can expect to reap enormous
So the correct option is '(i), (iv) and (vi)'.

Biodiversity loss occurs due to 
(i) habitat loss and fragmentation
(ii) co-extinction
(iii) over-exploitation
(iv) alien species invasion.

  1. (i) and (ii)

  2. (i), (ii) and (iii)

  3. (ii), (iii) and (iv)

  4. (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)

Correct Option: D

The world is facing accelerated rates of species extinction, largely due to human interference. There are four major causes collectively called as the evil quarter.

'Broadly utilitarian' argument for the conservation of biodiversity does not include

  1. Bioprospecting

  2. Pollination

  3. Aesthetic value

  4. Climatic regulation

Correct Option: A

Bioprospecting is the exploration of molecular, genetic and species level-diversity for gaining the products of economic importance. It comes under narrowly utilitarian category. 

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