### Carbon cycling - class-X

 Description: carbon cycling Number of Questions: 59 Created by: Girish Devgan Tags: carbon and fuel ecology coal, petroleum and petrochemicals biology chemistry ecosystem biogeochemical cycles coal and petroleum ecosystems fossil fuels energy
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The number of possible enantiometric pairs that can be produced during monochorination of 2-methyl butane is:

1. 2

2. 3

3. 4

4. 1

Correct Option: A

Properties of one of the mineral coal is given below. Identify the mineral coal.
(1) It is a matured form of mineral coal.

(2) It contains 94% to 98% carbon.
(3) Its heat energy is about $33\, kJ \,gram^{-1}$

1. Bituminous Coal

2. Lignite

3. Peat

4. Anthracite

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The mineral coal with given properties is Anthracite.

Anthracite is coal of a hard variety and contains relatively pure carbon and burns with little flame and smoke. The carbon content is highest. Very few impurities are present. The energy density is highest in Anthracite when compared to all types of coal except for graphite. Anthracite has the highest ranking of coal.

1. How much energy is produced when two$_1H^2$ nuclei fuse to produce $_1H^3$ and $_1H^1$ ?

1. 1.0 MeV

2. 4.0 MeV

3. 1000 MeV

4. 3.3 MeV

Correct Option: B
Explanation:
$4.0 MeV$
Energy released in most nuclear reactions is much larger than in chemical reactions, because the binding energy that holds a nucleus together is far greater than the energy that holds electrons to a nucleus. For example, the ionization energy gained by adding an electron to a hydrogen nucleus is $13.6 eV$—less than one-millionth of the $17.6 MeV$ released in the deuterium–tritium (D–T) reaction.  The complete conversion of one gram of matter would release $9\times10^{13}$ joules of energy. Fusion reactions have an energy density many times greater than nuclear fission; the reactions produce far greater energy per unit of mass even though individual fission reactions are generally much more energetic than individual fusion ones, which are themselves millions of times more energetic than chemical reactions. Only direct conversion of mass into energy, such as that caused by the annihilatory collision of matter and antimatter, is more energetic per unit of mass than nuclear fusion.

1. Which of the following is an optional form of energy ?

1. Natural gas

2. Hydrogen

3. Petroleum

4. Geothermal energy

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Geothermal energy.

Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It is clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma.

The highest grade of coal, whose surface is shining and has the highest calorific value, is:

1. bituminous

2. peat

3. anthracite

4. lignite

Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Due to highest carbon content and fewest impurities, anthracite is the highest grade of coal, whose surface is shining and has the highest calorific value.

Which among the following coal contains highest $\%$ of Carbon?

1. Peat

2. Bituminous

3. Anthracite

4. Lignite

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The rank of coal is based on the amount of the plant converted into carbon.

Based on this four types of coal are generated:-
(i) Anthracite= $90$% carbon
(ii) Bituminous= $70$% carbon
(iii) Lignite= $40$% carbon
(iv) Peat= $28$% carbon
Anthracite has highest % of carbon.

Select the correct statement from the given:

1. Peat is the most abundant rank of coal

2. Peat has a heating value between 8300 and 13000 British Thermal Units per pound on a mineral-matter-free basis.

3. Peat is an organic sediment.

4. Peat has a carbon content of between 60 and 70%

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The rank of coal is based on the degree to which the original plant material has been transformed into carbon.

The ranks are as follows:
(i) Anthracite (ii) Bituminous coal (iii) Sub-bituminous coal (iv) Lignite
Peat is mainly composed of wetland vegetation. Therefore, principally bog plants including mosses, sedges and shrubs. So, it is organic sediment.

The calorific value of lignite is about _____ kJ/g.

1. 90

2. 78

3. 87

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The calorific value of the fuel is also called as the heat value of the fuel. It is defined as the amount of heat released by burning of unit quantity of the fuel. The calorific value is an important characteristic of the fuel. The unit of measurement of the calorific value is the same as the energy.

plant coal have a Calorific Value in the range of 9500 kJ/kg to 27000 kJ/ kg i.e 95 to 27 KJ/gm
The calorific value ranges from 8000 kJ/kg to 15000 kJ/kg i.e 8 to 15 KJ/gm.

Which is the primary state in transformation of coal?

1. Peat

2. Bitumen

3. Anthracite

4. Lignite

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The process of conversion of lignite to anthracite is called coalification or metamorphism of coal.
Coal is classified on the basis of its rank. The rank of coal denotes its degree of maturity. Vegetable matter, under the action of pressure, heat and anaerobic conditions, gets converted into different stages of coal namely:
Wood → Peat → lignite → sub-bituminous coal → bituminous coal → anthracite.
Peat is the first stage in the formation of coal.

What chemical reaction makes biodiesel?

1. transesterification

2. sublimation

3. polymerization

4. fermentation

Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains.

The chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat is called fermentation.

Transesterification is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.
The alcohol reacts with the fatty acids to form the mono-alkyl ester (biodiesel) and crude glycerol.

Biodiesel production is the process of producing the biofuel, biodiesel, through the chemical reactions transesterification and esterification. This involves vegetable or animal fats and oils being reacted with short-chain alcohols (typically methanol or ethanol).

Which of the following type of coal is having lowest carbon content and heating value.

1. anthracite

2. bituminous

3. lignite

4. all of them

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

A brownish-black coal with generally high moisture and ash content, and the lowest carbon content and heating value is lignite.

Lignite is:

1. high moisture and ash content coal

2. low moisture and ash content

3. has the highest heating value and lowest moisture

4. the hardest type of coal,

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content around 60–70 percent, a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 75 percent, and an ash content ranging from 6–19 percent compared with 6–12 percent for bituminous coal.

___________ is a brownish-black coal with generally high moisture and ash content, and the lowest carbon content.

1. bituminous

2. lignite

3. anthracite

4. sub-bituminous

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content around 60–70 percent, a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 75 percent, and an ash content ranging from 6–19 percent compared with 6–12 percent for bituminous coal. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 to 20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis.

Bituminous is a:

1. the most common form of coal

2. most widely used in the United States

3. a soft, intermediate grade of coal

4. all of these

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite and has a high heating (Btu) value . Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. Its primary constituents are macerals: vitrinite, and liptinite. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60–80%; the rest is composed of water, air, hydrogen, and sulfur.

On which factor does the calorific value of coal depend on?

1. Ash content

2. Size of coal particles

3. Moisture content

4. Volatile material

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The calorific value of the coal depends upon its ash content. Less the ash content present, more is the calorific value of the fuel i.e. the fuel which has less ash content produces more energy on burning. Higher the calorific value, more is the efficiency of the fuel.

What is pulverised coal?

1. Non smoking coal

2. Coal free from ash

3. Coal broken into fine particles

4. Coal which burns for long time

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Coal is a black coloured sedimentary rock. When coal is grounded or broken into fine particles using a device called powdered coal mill, the resultant coal obtained is called powdered coal or pulverized coal. It is used in cosmetics, for the generation of electricity etc.

What is the percentage of ash content in Indian coal?

1. 5%

2. 10%

3. 20%

4. 30%

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The ash content of indian coal is 30℅. Initially in 1970s it was 28℅. The quality of Indian coal is deteriorating over the years. However Sulphur content of Indian coal is low about 0.5℅.

The major content of coal in India is:

1. dust

2. ash

3. fly ash

4. cinder

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The ash content of Indian coal is 30℅. Initially, in the 1970s it was 28℅. The quality of Indian coal is deteriorating over the years. Compared to other constituents also, ash content is more in Indian coal.

Hence, the correct option is $B$

The elements that are combustible in the fuel are:

1. carbon and hydrogen

2. carbon, hydrogen and ash

3. carbon, hydrogen and sulphur

4. carbon, nitrogen and ash

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The substance that burns in the presence of oxygen and heat are called combustible substances whereas that do not burn are non-combustible substances. Elements such as carbon, hydrogen and sulphur present in the fuel makes it combustible.

Name the system that is mainly employed for the disposal of fly ash.

1. Pneumatic

2. Hydraulic

3. Both (a) & (b)

4. Steam jet system.

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Fly ash is also known as pulverised fuel ash. It is one of the coal combustion products. The pneumatic system is employed for the disposal of fly ash.

The percentage of carbon in peat is:

1. 40%

2. 30%

3. 60%

4. 70%

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

• Peat has the carbon content of about 40%-55%
• Anthracite has the carbon content of above 87%.
Hence, peat has the minimum carbon content and anthracite is the highest ranked coal.

The best coal suitable for the production of energy is_________________.

1. Lignite

2. Bituminous

3. Anthracite

4. Peat

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Anthracite coal has several important advantages not only over other forms of coal but over other energy-producing materials in general. Its most important advantage is, of course, the fact that it produces very little pollution or soot, making it a very clean source of heat. Anthracite coal is also very efficient because only a small amount needs to be burnt to produce a large amount of energy. Additionally, there is a large supply of anthracite, over six billion tons in the Appalachian Mountains alone, with more reserves found in the Rocky Mountains and the Andes.

Hence, the correct option is $C$

Which of the following will give off less heat per given unit weight?

1. Peat

2. Lignite

3. Bituminous

4. Anthracite

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

• Peat has the carbon content of about
• Anthracite has the carbon content of above 87%.
Hence, peat has the minimum carbon content and anthracite is the highest ranked coal.
So, peat will produce least heat per given unit weight and the anthracite will produce the highest heat per given unit weight.

The coal with highest ash content is?

1. Steam Coal

2. Lignite

3. Coking Coal

4. Bituminous Coal

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Coal is available in 4 forms: Lignite, bituminous, anthracite and sub-bituminous. Anthracite is the highest ranked coal with the carbon percentage of above 87%. The carbon content in bituminous is 77-87%, in sub-bituminous is 71-77% and in lignite is 60-70%.  Lignite has the least carbon content and hence highest ash content.

Which of the following states is the largest producer of lignite coal?

2. Bihar

3. Karnataka

4. Gujrat

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Coal is available in four forms: Lignite, bituminous, anthracite and sub- bituminous. Anthracite is the highest ranked coal with the carbon percentage of above 87%. The carbon conten in lignite is 60-70%.  Tamil nadu is the largest producer of lignite coal.

Other than Carbon what are the elements present in coal?

1. Hydrogen

2. Sulphur

3. Oxygen

4. Nitrogen

Correct Option: A,B,C,D
Explanation:

Other than Carbon (the main constituent), all the above mentioned elements are also present in coal.

Coal is mainly found in which rocks?

1. Sedimentary

2. Igneous

3. Metamorphic

4. None of these

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Coal is mainly found in beds of sedimentary rocks. But metamorphic rocks might sometime contain anthracite coal. But sedimentary rocks is the most important source of coal.

Peat is the first stage product of coal consisting of $60$% carbon.

1. True

2. False

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Peat is a fuel consisting of spongy material formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter in wetlands such as swamps, bogs, and moors. Peat contains tree cellulose, more than $75$% moisture and less than $60$% carbon.

Which form of coal has the highest carbon content in it?

1. Lignite

2. Sub-bituminous

3. Bituminous

4. Anthracite

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The order of carbon content is as follows:

Lignite < sub-bituminous < bituminous < anthracite
Hence, anthracite has highest carbon content. It is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a good lustre.

The variety of coal used as old house coal is:

1. anthracite

2. peat

3. lignite

4. bituminous

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Bituminous or black coal is a soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal and has low ash content so it is used as coal fuel in homes.

Percentage of carbon present in an air dried sample of anthracite is:

1. 94 - 98%

2. 27 - 30%

3. 78 - 86 %

4. 27 %

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Percentage of carbon present in an air dried sample of anthracite is 94-98%.

__________ has the lowest percentage of carbon.

1. Lignite

2. Bituminous

3. Anthracite

4. Peat

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Peat found in the lowest depth of earth considering the other forms of coal.It also has the lowest percentage of carbon as compared to other forms.In other words, we can say that they are the youngest fossils.

It contains about 27-40% of carbon content.
So the answer is $D$.

.......... is the common variety of coal used in household.

1. Anthracite

2. Bituminous

3. Peat

4. Lignite

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Bituminous coal is a dense sedimentary rock, usually black which is used primarily as household coal ,fuel in steam-electric power generation and to produce coke.

.......... has the highest percentage of carbon.

1. Anthracite

2. Bituminous

3. Peat

4. Lignite

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Anthracite has the highest percentage of carbon. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism), in which the carbon content is between 92.1% and 98%.

Which of the following conditions regarding a chemical process ensures its spontaneity at all temperature ?

1. $\Delta A > 0, \Delta S < 0$

2. $\Delta H < 0, \Delta S > 0$

3. $\Delta H < 0, \Delta S < 0$

4. $\Delta H > 0, \Delta S > 0$

Correct Option: B

Which of the following has the maximum density

1. Diamond

2. silicon

3. Graphite

4. Germenium

Correct Option: A

The variety of coal used as household coal is:

1. anthracite

2. peat

3. lignite

4. bituminous

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Anthracite coal has highest amount of carbon and has clean burning properties. So, it is used as a household coal.

The purest form of coal is:

1. peat

2. anthracite

3. lignite

4. bituminous coal

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

They are the purest forms of coal, having the highest degree of coalification, the highest carbon count and energy content and the fewest impurities (moisture, ash and volatiles).

Anthracite contains nearly 95% of carbon and is the purest form of coal so anthracite is the purest form of coal than any other forms.

Therefore, option B is correct.

What percentage of carbon in Bituminous coal?

1. $28-30\%$

2. $28\%$

3. $78-86\%$

4. $94-98\%$

Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Type of coal Percentage of carbon
Peat $28\%$
Lignite $28-30\%$
Bituminous $78-86\%$
Anthracite $94-98\%$

Which of the primary state in transformation of coal?

1. Peat

2. Lignite

3. Bitumen

4. Anthracite

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Peat is the first stage in the formation of coal. The heat and pressure from the top layers convert dead plants into a spongy brown material called peat.

Peat coal contains about _____ % carbon.

1. 28

2. 78

3. 68

4. 88

Correct Option: A
Explanation:

There are four different types of coal

(i) Anthracite $\Rightarrow 90$% carbon
(ii) Bituminous $\Rightarrow 70$% carbon
(iii) Lignite $\Rightarrow 40$% carbon
(iv) Peat coal $\Rightarrow 28$% carbon
Peat coal has $28$% carbon.

The variety of coal having highest carbon content is:

1. peat

2. anthracite

3. bituminous

4. lignite

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Anthracite is a hard compact variety of coal that has a high lustre. it has the highest carbon content, fewest impurities and the highest calorific content of all types of coal which also include bituminous coal and lignite.

The percentage of carbon in lignite is ______%.

1. $70\, to \,90$

2. $60\, to\, 80$

3. $60\, to\, 90$

4. $60\, to \,70$

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content around   60–70  percent, a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as $75$ percent, and an ash content ranging from $6–19$ percent.

Carbon dioxide is a naturally-occurring component of the atmosphere.

1. True

2. False

Correct Option: A

Which of the owing statements regarding the maintenance of carbon cycle in the biosphere are correct?
a. Plant utilize solar energy to convert $CO _2$ and water into cellular materials and produce oxygen that animals consume.
b. Oxygen produced by the plants during carbon assimilation is not a byproduct.
c. Energy used by an animal comes from the oxidation of plant material releasing $CO _2$ that escapes into the atmosphere.
d. All decaying organic matter on the earth is ultimately degraded by molds and bacteria to yield $CO _2$ that escapes into the atmosphere.

1. $2, 3$ and $4$

2. $1, 3$ and $4$

3. $1$ and $2$

4. $1, 2, 3$ and $4$

Correct Option: A

Burning of fossil fuels affects

1. Nitrogen cycle

2. Carbon cycle

3. Phosphorus cycle

4. Water cycle

Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Carbon dioxide is being added to the atmosphere through two types of processes,
(A) Biological i.e respiration and decomposition release carbon dioxide.
(B) Non biological i.e burning of biomass and fossil fuel release a lot of carbon dioxide. Thus burning of fossil fuels affect carbon cycle of nature
So, the correct answer is 'Carbon cycle'

In the earths crust carbon is found in the form of

1. Carbonates

2. Hydrogen carbonates

3. Petroleum

4. All of the above

Correct Option: D
Explanation:

In the Earths crust only 0.02% Carbon is found in the form of minerals like carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, coal and petroleum.

The carbon cycle is the movement of carbon on Earth by the processes of --- and ---- .

1. Plants and animals

2. Respiration and photosynthesis

3. Breathing in and breathing out

4. Oxygen and carbon dioxide

Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Carbon exists in the atmosphere as the compound carbon dioxide. It first enters the ecological food web when photosynthetic organisms, such as plants and certain algae, absorb carbon dioxide through tiny pores in their leaves. The plants then "fix" or capture the carbon dioxide and are able to convert it into simple sugars like glucose through the biochemical process known as photosynthesis. Plants store and use this sugar to grow and to reproduce. Thus, by their very nature as makers of their own food, plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. When plants are eaten by animals, their carbon is passed on to those animals. Since animals cannot make their own food, they must get their carbon either directly by eating plants or indirectly by eating animals that have eaten plants.
Respiration is the process in which oxygen is used to break down organic compounds into carbon dioxide  (CO2) and water (H2O). For an animal then, respiration is both taking in oxygen (and releasing carbon dioxide) and oxidizing its food (or burning it with oxygen) in order to release the energy the food contains. In both cases, carbon is returned to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
So, the correct answer is 'Respiration and photosynthesis'.

The atomic no. of carbon is ________

1. 5

2. 6

3. 12

4. 14

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The atomic no. of carbon is 6, The atomic no. of Boron is 5, The atomic no. of Magnesium is 12, The atomic no. of Silicon is 14.

Affinity of hemoglobin for CO is two hundred times more considerable than

1. $O _{2}$

2. $CO _{2}$

3. Sox

4. Nox

Correct Option: A

Major 'reservoirs' of $CO _{2}$ are:

1. Land, water, plants

2. Fossil fuel, soil, , oceans

3. Volcanic Eruption

4. Deforestation

Correct Option: B

Which of the following gases has role an important in maintaining atmospheric temperature?

1. Nitrogen

2. Oxygen

3. Argon

4. Carbon dioxide

Correct Option: D

Biochemical cycle with gaseous phase is

1. Carbon

2. Sodium

3. Phosphorus

4. Magnesium

Correct Option: A

How does photosynthesis help to maintain the percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

1. By giving off carbon dioxide and absorbing oxygen

2. By giving off oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide

3. By releasing oxygen and carbon dioxide

4. By absorbing oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Correct Option: B
Explanation:

During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed to form carbohydrate by the dark reaction. The water molecules are broken down during the light reaction and release oxygen. Thus, the two process helps to maintain the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

So, the correct answer is option B.

Which of the following is the largest reservoir of carbon?

1. Soil

2. Atmosphere

3. Ocean

4. Sedimentary rocks

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

In the ocean, there are underwater sediments and sediment rocks of carbonate like in the form of limestone, dolomite etc. Thus, the correct answer is option C.

If the carbon atoms fixed by producers already have passed through three species, the tropic level of the last species would be.

1. Scavenger

2. Tertiary producer

3. Tertiary consumer

4. Secondary consumer

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

If the carbon atoms fixed by producer already have passed through three species then the trophic level of the last species(i.e., third species) would be tertiary consumer.
Producers $\rightarrow 1^o$ consumers $\rightarrow 2^o$ consumers $\rightarrow 3^o$ consumers.

Which one of the following statements regarding CO gas is correct ?

1. It is produced by the complete combustion of fossil fuels.

2. It combines with haemoglobin to form carbamino-haemoglobin.

3. It impairs oxygen transport resulting in giddiness, headache, asphyxia and even death.

4. All of these

Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Carbon monoxide ( CO ) is produced due to incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, metallurgical operations, automobile emission, cigarette smoking. CO combines with haemoglobin, produces carboxyhaemoglobin which impairs oxygen transport resulting in headache, decreased vision, cardiovascular disease, asphyxia.

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