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Workers and employment - class-VII

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_____________ is a statement which shows a maximum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job satisfactorily.

  1. Job evaluation

  2. Job description

  3. Job specification

  4. None of these


Correct Option: C

Percentage of people in non-working age group is known as ________.

  1. working - non working ratio

  2. dependency rate

  3. non-dependency rate

  4. none of the above.


Correct Option: B

Which of the following is the name of the organisations, created to provide full employment and self-reliance to the women folk in India?

  1. OECD

  2. ROSCA

  3. SVP

  4. SEWA


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The Self-Employed Women's Association of India(SEWA) is a trade union for poor, self-employed women workers in India. SEWA was founded in $1972$ by the noted Gandhian and civil rights leader Dr Ela Bhatt. SEWA's main office was located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat and it works in several states of India. SEWA members are women who earn a living through their own labour or small business. SEWA is strongly supported by the World Bank which holds it out as a model to be replicated elsewhere.

Real wage is equal to which of the following?

  1. $\displaystyle\frac{Profit}{price level}$

  2. $\displaystyle\frac{Rent}{price level}$

  3. $\displaystyle\frac{Interest}{price level}$

  4. $\displaystyle\frac{Money wage}{price level}$


Correct Option: D

Which of the following type of employment is found in India?

  1. Structural employment

  2. Quasi employment

  3. disguised employment

  4. All of these


Correct Option: D

Which of the following organisations has been established mainly to promote micro, small and medium industrial sector in India?

  1. NABARD

  2. SIDBI

  3. IDBI Bank

  4. EXIM Bank


Correct Option: B

The level of input has ______ relationship with the level of employment.

  1. direct

  2. indirect

  3. significant

  4. normal


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The level of input has direct relationship with the level of employment. This states that input and output has a positive technical or functional relationship. When the level of input or raw materials increases, the level of output also rises.

Fill in the blanks from the alternatives given.
Illiterate people are exploited by not being paid their _______ wages.

  1. maximum

  2. highest

  3. minimum

  4. none of these


Correct Option: C

Fill in the blanks from the alternatives given.
Working population is in the age group of ___ years.

  1. 0-14

  2. 15-59

  3. 60 and above

  4. none of these


Correct Option: B

As per the standard person year basis if a person is working for $8$ hours a day and for ___________ days in a year he is regarded as employed.

  1. $280$

  2. $365$

  3. $273$

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C

There are more self- employed people in rural than in urban areas because ______.

  1. majority of those depending on farming own plots of land and cultivate independently

  2. fewer self-employment opportunities in urban areas

  3. both A and B

  4. urban people lack the initiative


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

In urban areas, 42% of the workforce is self-employed as compared to 56% in rural areas. In rural areas, since majority of those depending on farming own plots of land and cultivate independently, the share of self-employed is greater. The nature of work in urban areas is different. Obviously everyone cannot run factories, shops and offices of various types. Moreover enterprises in urban areas require workers on a regular basis.

Workers who own and operate an enterprise to earn their livelihood are known as ________.

  1. employers

  2. self-employed

  3. wage labourers

  4. owners


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Workers who own and operate an enterprise to earn their livelihood are known as self-employed. Wage labourers are casually engaged in others’ farms and, in return, get a remuneration for the work done. Employers are the people who engage workers in their enterprise.

Why is worker-population ratio higher in rural areas than that in urban areas?

  1. People in rural areas have limited resources to earn a higher income and participate more in the employment market

  2. People in rural areas discontinue education in the middle to join the workforce due poor financial conditions

  3. Rural people have a variety of employment opportunities

  4. Rural people look for the appropriate job to suit their qualifications and skills


Correct Option: A,B
Explanation:
People in rural areas have limited resources to earn a higher income and participate more in the employment market. Many do not go to schools, colleges and other training institutions. Even if some go, they discontinue in the middle to join the workforce. 
Urban people have a variety of employment opportunities. They look for the  appropriate job to suit their qualifications and skills. In rural areas, people cannot stay at home as their economic condition may not allow them to do so.

Majority of the workforce in India are  _____.

  1. Casual workers

  2. Salaried employees

  3. Self-employed

  4. none of these


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Workers who own and operate an enterprise to earn their livelihood are known as self employed. More than half the workforce in India belongs to this category.
Casual wage labourers account for 33 per cent of India’s workforce whereas regular salaried employees account for 15 per cent of India’s workforce.

The difference in participation rates of male and female is _______ in urban areas than in rural areas.

  1. higher

  2. lower

  3. both a and b

  4. none of these


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Compared to females, more males are found to be working. The difference in participation rates is very large in urban areas: for every 100 urban females, only about 14 are engaged in some economic activities. In rural areas, for very 100 rural women about 30 participate in the employment market.

Why is worker-population ratio in urban areas low?

  1. Urban people have a variety of employment opportunities

  2. They look for the appropriate job to suit their qualifications and skills

  3. In urban areas, a considerable section is able to study in various educational institutions

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
In urban areas, the worker-population ratio is about 34 whereas in rural India, the ratio is about 42. It is because in urban areas, a considerable section is able to study in various educational institutions. Urban people have a variety of employment opportunities. They look for the appropriate job to suit their qualifications and skills.

Which of the following is false?

  1. Self-employed and casual wage labourers are found more in rural areas than in urban areas

  2. Men are engaged in salaried employment in greater proportion than women

  3. Casual wage work engages the least workforce

  4. Salaried employment engages the least workforce


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
When we compare the distribution of workforce in rural and urban areas we notice that the self-employed and casual wage labourers account for a total of 93% of the workforce in rural areas as compared to 60% in urban areas.
When it comes to regular salaried employment, men are found to be so engaged in greater proportion. They form 18 per cent whereas women form only 8 per cent of the workforce.
Casual wage labourers account for 33 per cent of India’s workforce. Regular salaried employees form 15% of the workforce, which is the least.

The gratuity of generally payable in _______________.

  1. Cash

  2. By demand draft

  3. By cheque

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D

Why are there lesser women in the workforce?

  1. Where men are able to earn high incomes, families discourage female members from taking up jobs

  2. Many activities for the household engaged in by women are not recognised as productive work

  3. Both A and B

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Compared to females, more males are found to be working. This is because where men are able to earn high incomes, families discourage female members from taking up jobs. Many activities for the household engaged in by women are not recognised as productive work. This narrow definition of work leads to non-recognition of women’s work and, therefore, to the underestimation of the number of women workers in the country.

An employment situation where the marginal productivity of agricultural labour is zero is known as ___________.

  1. structural unemployment

  2. seasonal unemployment

  3. cyclical unemployment

  4. disguised unemployment


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

A situation in which available work tasks are split among resources (typically labour) such that they seem fully employed but in reality much of their time is spent in unproductive activities is called disguised unemployment. Here the marginal productivity of labour comes to zero. When aggregate demand for goods and services in the economy falls far below its capacity, a large chunk of labour force gets employed. This is known as cyclical unemployment. While structural unemployment means the change in the demand pattern for goods necessitates change in the demand pattern for labour. But labour force cannot immediately metamorphose, matching the change in demand pattern. Due to these conditions a state of unemployment occurs that is known as structural unemployment.

Which of the following doest not determine supply of labour?

  1. Size and age-structure of population

  2. Nature of work

  3. Marginal productivity of labour

  4. Speed and Intensity of work


Correct Option: C

Which of the following is true regarding employment in India?

  1. Rural workers constitute about three-fourths of workforce

  2. Men form the majority of workforce in India

  3. Women workers account for majority of the rural workforce

  4. Both A and B


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
During 1999- 2000, India had about a 400 million strong workforce.The rural workers constitute about three-fourth of this 400 million. Men form the majority of workforce in India. Women workers account for one-third of the rural workforce whereas in urban areas, they are just one-fifth of the workforce.

The responsibility of the organization to the workers includes:
(i) The payment of fair wages
(ii) Arrangement of proper training and education of the workers
(iii) The installation of an efficient grievance handling system
(iv) Welfare of family members
(v) The provision of the best possible working conditions
Identify the correct combination:

  1. (i), (ii), (iii) and (v)

  2. (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v)

  3. (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)

  4. (i), (iii), (iv) and (v)


Correct Option: A

______ is an indicator which is used for analysing the employment situation in the country.

  1. NNP

  2. Worker population ratio

  3. Number of workers

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Worker-population ratio is an indicator which is used for analyzing the employment situation in the country. NNP deals with national income, not employment. No. of workers is an absolute measure, which cannot be used to assess the employment situation.

The supply of labour in the economy depends on which of the following?

  1. Population

  2. National income

  3. Per capita income

  4. Natural resources


Correct Option: A

Exploitation of labour is said to exist when ________.

  1. Wage $=$ Marginal Revenue Product

  2. Wage $<$ Marginal Revenue Product

  3. Wage $>$ Marginal Revenue Product

  4. Marginal Revenue Product $= 0$


Correct Option: B

Worker-population ratio is useful in ________.

  1. knowing the proportion of the population that is actively contributing to the production of goods and services of a country

  2. estimating national income

  3. estimating GDP

  4. knowing the number of people employed


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Worker-population ratio is useful in knowing the proportion of population that is actively contributing to the production of goods and services of a country.  Employment situation does not help in calculating National income or GDP.

Worker-population ratio =

  1. Total number of men $\div$ (population $\times$100)

  2. (Total number of workers in India $\times$100) $\div$ Population 

  3. Total number of urban workers $\div$ (Population $\times$100)

  4. Total labour $\div$ (Population $\times$100)


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Divide the total number of workers in India by the population in India and multiply it by 100, you will get the worker-population ratio for India.

Entrepreneurial ability is a special kind of labour that ___________.

  1. is hired out to firms at high wages

  2. organises the process of production

  3. produces new capital goods to earn interest

  4. manages to avoid losses by continual innovation


Correct Option: B

_____________ is the process of negotiation between employers and the representatives of a unit of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions.

  1. Participation management

  2. Collective bargaining

  3. Code of conduct

  4. None of these


Correct Option: B

The code of Discipline was evolved at the Indian Labour Conference in _______.

  1. 1958

  2. 1961

  3. 1948

  4. 1921


Correct Option: A

Critical incident method is a method of _____________.

  1. Performance appraisal

  2. Promotion

  3. Laws

  4. Market


Correct Option: A

The job redesign includes ________________.

  1. Provide task closure

  2. Person

  3. System

  4. Casting


Correct Option: A

Which means deciding the value of the work done by the individual?

  1. Performance appraisal

  2. Task

  3. Action

  4. Reward


Correct Option: A

Disguised unemployment in the agricultural sector of India exists due to the ______.

  1. dependence of agriculture on the monsoons

  2. abolition of zamindari

  3. heavy pressure of population on land

  4. absence of trade unions in the agriculture sector


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Dependency on agriculture is increasing day by day because of lack of alternative employment opportunities and burgeoning population resulting in disguised unemployment. In fact overcrowding and consequent pressure of population on land have led to the sub-division and fragmentation of holdings decline in area of land per capita and disguised employment in agriculture.

Employment Guarantee Scheme was first introduced in which of the following states?

  1. Odisha

  2. Maharashtra

  3. Punjab

  4. Uttar Pradesh


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Employment Guarantee Scheme was first introduced in Maharasthra in $1972-73$. The scheme was the first of its kind to give recognition to the 'right to work' enshrined in the constitution. It emboided a commitment by the state to provide work to a person who comes forward to offer labour.

Fringe benefits includes ______________.

  1. Financial facility

  2. Housing

  3. Health

  4. All of these


Correct Option: D

Which of the following is not an employment-generating programme of the Government of India?

  1. NREGA

  2. SGRY

  3. DPAP

  4. TRYSEM


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

DPAP is not an employment-generating programme of the Government of India. The full form of DPAP is Drought Prone Areas Programme. It is launched by the Central Government in 1973-74. It is launched to support handle special problems of the drought prone areas.

The Employees Provident Fund Act was passed in the year ________.

  1. 1948

  2. 1971

  3. 1976

  4. 1952


Correct Option: D

NREGA stands for ____.

  1. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

  2. National Rural Estates Grant Act

  3. National Rural Education Grant Act

  4. None of these


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
NREGA - National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
Under NREGA (2005), all those who are able to and in need of work are guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government. If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowances to the people.

A sole objective of GATT set up is _______________________.

  1.  to reduce barriers of international trade

  2. to create international peace

  3. to develop underdeveloped/developing countries

  4. to boost Tariff and non-Tariff Trade


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

GATT's main objective was to reduce barriers to international trade through the reduction of tariffs, quotas and subsidies.
 It has since been superseded by the creation of the World Trade Organization (
WTO)

Which of the following is/are true about the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act?
(A) The Act is now known as Indira Gandhi National Runid Employment Guarantee Act.
(B) The Act is now applicable to all the districts of the country.
(C) Minimum wage fixed under this Act is now Rs 250 per day.

  1. Only A

  2. Only B

  3. Only C

  4. All A, B and C


Correct Option: B

Contract labour has been increasing in the country in the recent years— select the correct statements related to this fact using the code given below:
1. At present, around one fourth of all registered manufacturing workers are on contract in comparison to just $12$ per cent of late nineties.
2. This is higher in the states with more rigid labour laws.
3. India needs to tame down the instances of regulatory cholesterol.

  1. 1 and 2

  2. 1 only

  3. 3 only

  4. 1, 2 and 3


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

As per experts, slow pace of labour reforms is the main reason behind this incidence. Economic Survey 2015-16 terms it 'regulatory cholesterol'. 

Frictional employment takes place when ______________.

  1. there are dynamic changes in the economy

  2. when there is a clash between two types of employment

  3. when there is no change in shifts in demand

  4. when there is no change in technological progress


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Frictional employment/unemployment occurs when people are changing their jobs. When individuals are seeking better job opportunities, shifting from one job to another this happens. When there are sudden boosts or downfalls in the economy this could occur. 

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) is a scheme launched by the Ministry of ______________.

  1. Finance

  2. Rural Development

  3. Commerce

  4. Labour


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana was implemented on April $1$, $2008$ by the Ministry of Labour, Govt of India. Under the scheme, all workers in unorganised sector in the BPL group and their families will be provided an insurance cover of Rs. $30,000$ per annum per family. The scheme has the provision of smart card to enable beneficiaries for cashless transaction of health care.

$75\%$ of the premium will be contributed by centre and remaining $25\%$ by states. $2$ states and Union Territories initiated the process to implement this scheme.

In the industrial sector, the term 'gratuity' is treated as a __________ from the employer to his employees for the services rendered.

  1. Donation

  2. Profit Share

  3. Gift

  4. Salary


Correct Option: C

State whether the following statements are True or False.
Seasonal unemployment is more in urban areas.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: A

State whether the following statements are True or False.
High growth of population is the only cause of rural unemployment.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: B

State whether the following statements are True or False.
Joint Family system increases the unemployment problem.

  1. True

  2. False


Correct Option: A

_________ is given to improve motivation and productivity among employees.

  1. Salary

  2. Incentive wages

  3. Fringe benefits

  4. Compensation


Correct Option: B

The New Economic Policy was introduced in India in _____________.

  1. $1991$

  2. $1998$

  3. $1997$

  4. None of these


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

India's New Economic Policy of 1991 was a neoliberal Structural Adjustment Program that allowed India to qualify for aid from the World Bank and IMF. In 1990, India faced an economic crisis and was "on the brink of default" on its debts.

The new economic policy included the policies of Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation.

The area from which applicants can be recruited is ______________.

  1. Job agencies

  2. Labour markets

  3. Employment lines

  4. Labour unions


Correct Option: B

A multinational is ___________________.

  1. A company operating in many countries

  2. An international body to help developing countries

  3. A person who has visited many countries

  4. A company established with foreign assistance


Correct Option: A

The name of which of the following great leaders is now associated with National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme?

  1. Indira Gandhi

  2. Mahatma Gandhi

  3. Jawaharlal Nehru

  4. Rajiv Gandhi


Correct Option: B

"Pastoral State" is mainly characterized by _____________________.

  1. Absolute dependence on nature

  2. Birth of slavery

  3. Beginning of the division of labour

  4. Birth of big cities an towns


Correct Option: C

Industrial Democracy means ___________________.

  1. Labour participation in management

  2. Establishing trade unions for labours

  3. Government of labours

  4. Nationalisation of Industries


Correct Option: A

Wages means ________________.

  1. Income

  2. Revenue

  3. All emoluments earned by an employee while on duty or on leave in accordance with the conditions of employment

  4. Tax


Correct Option: C
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