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Mycorrhiza - class-XI

Description: mycorrhiza
Number of Questions: 58
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Tags: biological classification living world botany kingdom monera, protista and fungi biology
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Match column I with column II and select the correct answer from the given codes.

Column I  Column II 
A. Mycorrhizae (i) Azadirachtin
B. Bacillus thuringiensis (ii) Phosphorus nutrition
C. Root nodules (iii)  Leghaemoglobin 
D. Biopesticide (iv) Bioinsecticide
  1. A-(iii), B-(i), C-(ii), D-(iv)

  2. A-(ii), B-(iii), C-(iv), D-(i)

  3. A-(ii), B-(iv), C-(iii), D-(i)

  4. A-(iii), B-(iv), C-(ii), D-(i)


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
Mycorrhizae helps in phosphorus uptake from the soil.
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bioinsecticide.
Leghaemoglobin is present in the root nodules in leguminous plants.
Azadiractin is a secondary metabolite present in the neem seeds and it acts as a biopesticide.
So, the correct option is 'A-(ii), B-(iv), C-(iii), D-(I)'

Mycorrhiza is an association between roots of higher plant and fungus. It is an example of

  1. Symbiosis

  2. Parasitism

  3. Helotism

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Biologically, mycorrhiza is defined as an association of fungi and roots of vascular plants. In a mycorrhizal association, the fungus tends to colonise the host plant roots either intracellular or extracellular. However, this is a symbiotic association, which is generally mutualistic and rarely pathogenic.

Thus, the correct answer is option A.  

Fungus which is found in Pinus root is

  1. Amanita

  2. Corticium

  3. Fornes

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza is the term used to define the association of fungi on roots of vascular plants. In the case of woody plants such as pine, birch and oak, the fungi belonging to the phyllum; Basidomycota and Acomycota form the mycorrhizal assoociations. Ectomycorrhizas, such as Amanita and Boletus form mycorrhizas on Pinus.

Thus, the correct answer is option A.

An association between roots of higher plants and fungi is called

  1. Lichen

  2. Fem

  3. Mycorrhiza

  4. BGA


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

A mycorrhiza is a harmonious relationship between an organism and the underlying roots of a vascular host plant. 

So, the correct option is 'mycorrhiza'.

Give a brief account on VAM.

  1. Forms fungal sheath around root

  2. Fungal hypha grows intracelluarly

  3. Fungal hypha destoys cortical cells to rach phloem of the plant

  4. Forms hartig net in the intercellular spaces of cortex


Correct Option: A
Explanation:
Mycorrhiza is the product formed by the symbiotic association between the fungus and the roots of higher plants. Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) is the symbiotic association between Phycomycetes fungus and the roots of angiospermic plants forming a mycelial sheath and also acts as a biofertilizer.
Some of the main characteristic features are :
• Helps to absorb important macro and microelements and water
• Compatible with other biofertilizers
• Provides protection to the plants from pathogenic fungi and nematodes 
• Does not affect ecological balance and environmental friendly.
So, the correct answer is 'Forms fungal sheath around root'

Select the true statements out of the following.
(A) VAM is useful for phosphate absorption.
(B) Most of the lichens are ascolichens.
(C) Trebouxia is most common phycobiont in lichens.

  1. Only A and B

  2. Only B and C

  3. Only C

  4. A, B and C


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Lichens are classified as per their fungal component and the species  are given the same binomial name as per the fungus species in the lichen. The  partner in a lichen which enables photosynthesis is called as photobiont and the algal photobionts are called as phycobionts. Trebouxia, a genus of green algae is most common phycobiont and occurs in 40% of all lichens.
Since, the fungal component of the lichen may be a ascomycete or a basidiomycete, the associated lichens to ascomycetes are called as ascolichens.
Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM fungi) forms symbiosis with higher plants. This type of symbiosis helps in the intake of nutrients especially phosphorus.

Therefore, the correct answer is option D.

Which one is an example of mutualism?

(a) Mycorrhiza
(b) Orchid and Bee
(c) Fig tree and wasp
(d) Epiphytes.

  1. a and b

  2. b and d

  3. a and c

  4. a, b and c


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Orchids and orchid bees are a classic example of mutualism. The flowers depend on the bees to pollinate them so they can reproduce and, in return, the bees get fragrance compounds they use during courtship displays and mycorrhizae are symbiotic relationships that form between fungi and plants. The fungi colonize the root system of a host plant, providing increased water and nutrient absorption capabilities while the plant provides the fungus with carbohydrates formed from photosynthesis. 


So, the correct option is - 'A and b'.

Consider the following statements.
a. Mycorrhizae decrease the efficiency of plants to absorb phosphorus from the soil.
b. Only certain prokaryotes synthesize the enzyme nitrogen's.
Which of the statements are correct?

  1. $1$ only

  2. $2$ only

  3. Both $1$ and $2$

  4. Neither $1$ nor $2$


Correct Option: A

Mycorrhiza is an example of 

  1. Symbiotic relationships

  2. Ectoparasitism

  3. Endoparasitism

  4. Decomposers


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic relation seen between certain plants and fungi. The fungi live on the roots of certain plants and help them absorb water and nutrients from the soil in a better way. In return, plants provide shelter and nutrition to fungi. So, both the organisms mutually befit each other.

So this type of relationship is called symbiotic relationship.

Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between 

  1. Algae and Fungi

  2. Algae and Roots of plants

  3. Fungi and Roots of plants

  4. Viruses and Bacteria


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Fungi present in the roots of the plants show a symbiotic relationship with each other. It helps the roots of the plants to absorb more nutrients and water from the soil. It also helps them obtain better resistance to environmental stresses. In return, plants provide shelter and nutrition to mycorrhiza.

So, option C is the correct answer.

Roots of higher plants develop mycorrhiza for obtaining

  1. Sulphates

  2. Nitrogen

  3. Phosphates

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza is a type of symbiotic relationship. It is seen when two organisms have mutually beneficial relationship with each other. In this cas, the roots of plants host fungi, which helps them obtain water, sulphur, phosphates from soil. They also help them fix nitrogen. Inturn, fungi obtain nutrition and shelter 

So, option D is the correct answer.

The fungus which grows around the root surface is called

  1. Endomycorrhizae

  2. Ectomycorrhizae

  3. Rhizomorph

  4. Hatistoria


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza is an association between a fungus and the root of the higher plant, for example, pinus, eucalyptus etc.

The ectomycorrhizae is a fungal association in which the fungus partner is commonly basidiomycetes. The fungus completely encloses the roots in a mantle of tissues formed of compact hyphal cells but do not penetrate inside the root cells like in endomycorrhiza
So, the correct answer is option B.

Mycorrhiza improve the soil structure by _______________.

  1. Secreting carbonic acids

  2. Releasing glycosides

  3. Absorbing heavy metals

  4. Adding amino acids


Correct Option: A

Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between

  1. Bacteria and fungi

  2. Algae and fungi

  3. Fungi and roots of higher plants

  4. Blue green algae and roots of higher plants


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
  • Fungi present in the roots of the plants show a symbiotic relationship with each other. 
  • It helps the roots of the plants to absorb more nutrients and water from the soil. 
  • It also helps them obtain better resistance to environmental stresses. In return, plants provide shelter and nutrition to mycorrhiza.
So, option C is the correct answer.

VAM is

  1. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza

  2. Variable adenine mutation

  3. Variable associative mutualism

  4. Vitamins and minerals


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Fungi forms symbiotic association with roots of higher plants, known as mycorrhizae. When fungal hyphae penetrate through cortex cells of root, these are called as Endomycorrhizae. These are also called vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae or VAM, because cortical cells swell and form vesicles or arbuscles. it has significant role in phosphorus nutrition in plants. hence, Option A is correct. 

Association of roots of higher plants and fungi is?

  1. Moss

  2. Fern

  3. Lichen

  4. Mycorrhiza


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Symbiotic association between roots of higher plants and fungi is termed as mycorrhiza.

Correct answer-D

VAM is a

  1. Mycorrhiza

  2. Succulent

  3. Epiphyte

  4. Mesophyte


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Full form of VAM is Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza. It is formed by the symbiotic association between certain phycomycetous fungi and angiosperm roots. Thus VAM is a mycorrhiza.

So, the correct option is 'Mycorrhiza'.

A phosphate solubilising symbiotic association is :

  1. Rhizobium

  2. Mycorrhiiza

  3. Azolla

  4. Pseudomonas


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Roots of most terrestrial plants are colonized by symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi are capable of mobilizing inorganic phosphates or compound phosphates present in the soil to the plant an a source of Phosphorus.

So, the correct answer is 'Mycorrhiiza'

Mycorrhiza is helpful in

  1. Synthesis of food

  2. Getting nutrients from soil

  3. Providing resistance against different regulators

  4. Increase the fertility of soil


Correct Option: B

VAM is component of _________

  1. Ectomycorhiza

  2. Endomycorhiza

  3. Green manure

  4. Mycoherbicides


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The ectomycorrhiza is an association that takes place at the surface of the roots whereas the endomycorrizal fungi penetrate into the root cortex and form arbuscules within the root cells.

Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) is a fungus that penetrates the roots of a vascular plant and helps them to capture the nutrients from the soil. 
So, VAM is a component of endomycorhiza.

Plants growing in oligotrophic forest soils usually have

  1. Mycorrhiza

  2. Slow growth

  3. Reduced growth

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: A

Fungal hyphae remain intercellular in

  1. Endomycorrhiza

  2. VAM

  3. Ectomycorrhiza

  4. Both A and B


Correct Option: C

Ectomycorrhiza is found in

  1. Several trees and shrubs of tropical areas

  2. Many vascular plants of tropical area

  3. Several trees and shrubs of temperate areas

  4. Small vascular plants


Correct Option: C

In mycorrhiza, the tips of fungal hyphae occur inside cortical cells in _______

  1. Ectomycorrhiza

  2. Endomycorrhiza

  3. Extomycorrhiza

  4. None of these


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The cortex is only one cell thick and these cells are packed with fungal hyphae. The nutrient exchange between the fungus and plant takes place at this interface and is extremely efficient

In mycorrhiza, the fungal hyphae 

  1. Remain restricted to the root surface.

  2. Remain restricted upto the root cortex.

  3. Pass into the root interior.

  4. Enter the root apex and reach all parts.


Correct Option: B

True symbiotic association between fungus and seed plant is

  1. Endomycorrhiza

  2. Ectomycorrhiza

  3. Helotism

  4. Commensalism


Correct Option: B

In endomycorrhiza, the fungus is generally _________.

  1. Ascomycetes

  2. Zygomycetes

  3. Basidiomycetes

  4. Deuteromycetes


Correct Option: B

Mycorrhiza generally occurs in :

  1. Alkaline soils

  2. Acidic soils

  3. Oligotrophic soils

  4. Eutrophic soils


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

They prefer marshy environment and utilize dead and decaying material as food. Oligotrophic soil ( in between layers) have the above mentioned requirements in good quantities.Thus, the fungi prefer the oligotrophic soil for their survival

 So, the correct answer is 'Oligotrophic soils'

Mycorrhiza promotes plant growth by

  1. Absorbing inorganic ions from soil

  2. Serving as plant growth regulator

  3. Protecting plant from infection

  4. Helping plant in using atmospheric nitrogen


Correct Option: A

VAM contains 

  1. Symbiotic bacteria

  2. Saprophytic bacteria

  3. Symbiotic fungi

  4. Saprophytic fungi


Correct Option: C

Mycorrhiza exhibits the phenomenon of

  1. Antagonism

  2. Endemism

  3. Parasitism

  4. Symbiosis


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Symbiosis describes close interactions between two or more different species. In symbiotic relationship, the two species benefits. A mycorrhiza is defined as a symbiotic relationship between the roots of plants and fungi. The fungal symbiont gets shelter and food from the plant which, in turn, acquires an array of benefits such as better uptake of phosphorus, salinity and drought tolerance, maintenance of water balance, and overall increase in plant growth and development.

Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched? 

  1. Rhizobium -Parasite in the roots of leguminous plants.

  2. Mycorrhizae -Mineral uptake from soil.

  3. Yeast -Production of biogas.

  4. Myxomycetes -The ringworm diseases


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic relationship between fungi and roots of higher plants. Mycorrhizae present in the soil help in the uptake of minerals from soil. These organisms also help in the binding of roots to the soil. Since it is active transport in the roots, the mycorrhizae help in this active transport of minerals.

Mycorrhizae specialized for absorption of nutrients from the soil are

  1. Symbiotic association of fungi with algae

  2. Symbiotic association of fungi with roots of higher plants

  3. Symbiotic association of fungi with insects

  4. Fungi living on leaves of plants


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza is the association of fungi and the roots of plants. It is a symbiotic association where fungus helps in increasing the surface area of absorption. The mycorrhiza fungi help in the mineral uptake for the plant. The plant provides shelter and protection to the fungus. The fungus also obtains sugars from the plant.

Thus, the correct answer is option C. 

Fungal association of roots of higher plants in mycorrhiza is

  1. Parasitism

  2. Hyperparasitism

  3. Mutualism

  4. Commensalism


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

In mutualism or symbiosis both the organisms in the association are mutually benefitted and further this association is obligatory, i.e., necessary for the existence of both organisms. Mycorrhiza is an example of symbiosis. It is an association between roots of higher plants and fungal hyphae. The fungal hyphae supply water and nutrients to the plant and in turn get food from the plant. So, both the organisms are mutually benefitted.

Mycorrhiza is an example of

  1. Symbiotic relationships

  2. Ectoparasitism

  3. Endoparasitism

  4. Decomposers


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Mycorrhizae is the symbiotic association between the plant roots and fungi. The fungi colonize the living root tissue during active plant growth. The relationship between plants and fungi is symbiotic because the plant obtains phosphate and other minerals through the fungus, while the fungus obtains sugars from the plant root. 

What is true about mycorrhiza?

  1. It is an association of fungus and higher plants.

  2. It is association of algae and fungi.

  3. It is association of algae with higher plants.

  4. None of the above.


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Mycorrhizas are symbiotic associations essential for one or both partners, between a fungus (specialised for life in soils and plants) and a root (or other substrate-contacting organ) of a living plant, that is primarily responsible for nutrient transfer. Mycorrhizas occur in a specialised plant organ where intimate contact results from synchronised plant-fungus development. Mycorrhizal fungi are a major component of the soil microflora in many ecosystems, but usually have limited saprophytic abilities. They are considered to have many important roles in natural and managed ecosystems.

Thus, the correct answer is option A.

Mycorrhiza is an example of

  1. Symbiotic relationship

  2. Ectoparasitism

  3. Endopasitism

  4. Decomposers


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Symbiosis describes close interactions between two or more different species in which both species benefit. A mycorrhiza is defined as a symbiotic relationship between the roots of vascular plants and fungi.

The ectomycorrhizae form _______ on the root surface.

  1. Root tuber

  2. Mantle

  3. Root hair

  4. Vesicles


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Ectomycorrhizas are further differentiated from other mycorrhizas by the formation of a dense hyphal sheath, known as the mantle, surrounding the root surface. The sheathing mantle can be up to 40 Hm thick, with hyphae extending soil. These associations are formed predominantly on the fine root tips of the host distributed unevenly throughout the root surface.

The association between fungus and root system of certain plants is called as

  1. Amensalism

  2. Competition

  3. Mycorrhiza

  4. Cauliflory


Correct Option: C
Explanation:
  • Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and a plant.
  •  The term mycorrhiza refers to the role of the fungus in the plant's rhizosphere, its root system.
  •  Mycorrhizae play a role in plant nutrition, soil biology and soil chemistry.
  • Hence, Mycorrhiza is the association between fungus and root system of some plants
  • So, the correct answer is 'Mycorrhiza'.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

  1. Azospirillum - Maize

  2. Mycorrhiza - Pine

  3. VAM - Mycoherbicide

  4. Rotenone - Natural insecticide


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Azospirillum inoculations are recommended mainly for sorghum, millets, maize, sugarcane and wheat.
Mycorrhizal biofertilizers can be used for pine trees.
Rotenone is an odourless, colourless, crystalline ketonic chemical compound used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide. It occurs naturally in the seeds and stems of several plants, such as the jicama vine plant and the roots of several members of Fabaceae.
VAM is a biofertilizer and not a mycoherbicide. 

So, the correct answer is option C.

Mycorrhizae are the example of 

  1. Amensalism

  2. Antibiosis

  3. Mutualism

  4. Fungistasis


Correct Option: A

VAM (Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae) represents

  1. Saprophytic bacteria

  2. Symbiotic fungi

  3. Saprophytic fungi

  4. Parasitic algae


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza biofertilizer is also known as VAM, adheres to plants rhizoids leading to development of hyphae. Hyphae boost development and spreading of white root in to soil leading to significant increase in rhizosphere. These hyphae further penetrate and form arbuscules within the root cortical. VAM fungi form a special symbiotic relationship with roots of plant that can enhance growth and survivability of colonized plants. Mycorrhiza biofertilizer is very useful in organic farming as well as normal commercial farming. So, VAM is a symbiotic fungi and not a parasitic algae, saprophytic bacteria and saprophytic fungi. Thus, the correct answer is option B.

Glomus sp., which involve in mycorrhizal association belongs to

  1. Ectotrophic mycorrhiza

  2. Endotrophic mycorrhiza

  3. Parasitic fungus

  4. Cyanobacteria


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Fungi present inside the roots are called endotrophic mycorrhiza. eg:Glomus.
so, the correct option is 'Endotrophic mycorrhiza'.

Which one of the following is a useful functional association between fungi and the roots of higher plants?

  1. Lichen

  2. Coralloid root

  3. Biofertilizer

  4. Mycorrhiza


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza is a useful functional association between fungi and the roots of higher plants in which fungi absorb nutrients from the soil as their roots are not such strong and the tree provides food to the fungi. The best example is Orchid mycorrhiza

So the correct option is 'Mycorrhiza'

Select correct statement w.r.t. mycorrhiza 

  1. Ectomycorrhiza forms hartig net in the intracellular spaces of cortex cells

  2. Endotrophic mycorrhiza are mostly basidiaamycetes members

  3. VAM is a special type of endomycorrhiza and absorbs phosphate

  4. Mycorrhizal or fungal roots have root cap and root hairs


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

  • The ectomycorrhiza's hyphae does not penetrate the cortex cells and they only colonize in the intercellular spaces between them, and this network of hyphae are called as hartig net. So, the first statement is correct.
  • The endotrophic mycorrhiza are a type of arbascular mycorrhiza.
  • Vesicular arbascular mycorrhiza help the plants to grow well by colonizing their roots and helping them to efficiently absorb the phosphate in the soil.
  • So the correct option is 'VAM is a special type of endomycorrhiza and absorbs phosphate'.

The symbiotic association between fungi and roots of higher plants is referred to as:

  1. lichen

  2. mycorrhiza

  3. biofertiliser

  4. biocontrol agent


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
  • The symbiotic association between fungi and roots of higher plants is referred to as mycorrhiza.
  • The plant supports the fungus by providing carbohydrates needed for fungal growth, while the fungus helps the plant by increasing its root surface area.
  • So, the correct answer is 'Mycorrhiza'.

Mycorrhiza acts as

  1. Mechanical tissue

  2. Root hair in adverse conditions

  3. Modified root

  4. Organ for vegetative propagation


Correct Option: B

In what way does a fungus growing around the roots of higher plants benefit them?

  1. It products antimicrobial substances

  2. It produces growth promoting substances

  3. It helps in absorbing water nitrogen and other minerals

  4. All of them


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
The associations between roots and fungi are called mycorrhizae. The roots provide essential nutrients for the growth of the fungi. In return, the large mass of fungal hyphae acts as a virtual root system for the plants, increasing the amount of water and nutrients that the plant may obtain from the surrounding soil. So, the correct option is "D" (All of them)

VAM is

  1. Bioinsecticide

  2. Bioherbicide

  3. Endomycorrhiza

  4. Ectomycorrhiza


Correct Option: C

VAM represents

  1. Saprophytic fungi

  2. Symbiotic fungi

  3. Saprophytic bacteria

  4. Symbiotic bacteria


Correct Option: B

Which one of the following plays an important role in phosphate nutrition of plants? 

  1. VAM

  2. 1PM

  3. Legumes

  4. Cyanobacteria


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Role of VAM in Nutrient uptake of crop plants:

  • Microorganism and their role in soil must be considered as a key component among those conferring soil fertility and productivity.
  • One of the most important plants-microbe interactions is the association of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi with higher plants.
So, the correct option is 'VAM'.

Mycorrhiza does not help the host plant in:

  1. enhancing its phosphorus uptake capacity

  2. increasing its tolerance to drought

  3. enhancing its resistance to root pathogens

  4. increasing its resistance to Insects.


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Mycorrhiza helps the host plant in enhancing its phosphorus uptake capacity, in increasing its tolerance to drought. Mycorrhiza produces some chemicals which resist the pathogen like Fusarium.
So, the correct option is 'increasing its resistance to insects'

A symbiotic association between fungus and underground part of a plant is

  1. Hyperparasite

  2. Mycorrhiza

  3. Endophyte

  4. Subterranean parasite


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

A. Hyperparasite is an organism which lives off another parasite.

B. Mycorrhiza is the symbiotic relationship between vascular plant root and fungi. Its name comes from "myco" means fungi and "rhiza" means roots. Fungi come into direct contact with plant roots and with soil, adding to the plant's ability to gather nutrients and water from the soil through the fungus.
C. Endophyte is a bacterium or fungus which lives inside the plant for at least a part of its life cycle.
D. subterranean parasite is a parasite which lives underground on roots etc 
So, the correct answer is 'Mycorrhiza'.

Mycorrhiza, a relationship between fungi and roots of higher plants is

  1. Parasitic relationship

  2. Saprophytic relationship

  3. Symbiotic relationship

  4. Epiphytic relationship


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between Fungi and roots of higher plants, which grow in mineral deficient soil. It helps to absorb water and minerals like phosphorous from soil for the benefit of plant and in turn gets nutrition from the plant, as fungi cannot synthesize its own food.

So, the correct answer is option C.

A mycotrophic humus plant is

  1. Neottia

  2. Wullschleigelia

  3. Monotropa

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Neottia is a mycotrophic humus plant because it feeds on fungi for obtaining food and energy. This is because these plants lack chlorophyll to make their own food material.

So, the correct option is 'Neottia'.

Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between root and

  1. Alga

  2. Fungus

  3. Bacteria

  4. Virus


Correct Option: B
Explanation:
Mycorrhizas are symbiotic relationships between fungi and plant roots
So, the correct answer is 'Fungus'

Mycorrhiza is the

  1. Symbiotic association between fungus and roots of seed plants.

  2. Parasitic association between fungus and the roots of seed plants.

  3. Saprophytic association between fungus and roots of seed plants.

  4. All of the above.


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

Mycorrhiza refers to the symbiotic association of a fungus and roots of vascular plants. During this association, the fungus colonizes on the roots of the host seed plants either intracellularly or extracellulary and is generally mutualistic rather than pathogenic.

Thus, the correct answer is option A.

Which of the following statements is not correct regarding mycorrhiza ?

  1. It helps In absorption of phosphorus from the soil.

  2. It is a symbiotic association of fungi with the roots of higher plants.

  3. It helps the plant in developing resistance to root-borne pathogens.

  4. None of these


Correct Option: D
Explanation:
Mycorrhizae helps In absorption of phosphorus from the soil, it is a symbiotic association of fungi with the roots of higher plants, it helps the plant in developing resistance to root-borne pathogens.
So, the correct option is 'None of these'
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