Downstream processing - class-XII
|Description: downstream processing|
|Number of Questions: 15|
|Created by: Garima Pandit|
|Tags: biotechnology and its application botany cell biology and biotechnology biology biotechnology: principles and processes|
After completion of the biosynthetic stage in the bioreactors, the product undergoes separation and purification processes, collectively termed as _______________.
After the formation of the product in bioreactors, it undergoes through some processes before a finished product is ready for marketing. The processes include separation and purification of products which is collectively called as downstream processing.
Bacteria genetically engineered to express a gene from a plant will
When bacteria (a prokaryote) is engineered to express a gene from a
plant (an eukaryote), a slightly different approach is used. Eukaryotic
genes have both exons and Introns which are transcribed into the
primary transcript. Primary transcript is then processed by splicing
(removal of introns and joining of exons), capping and tailling to
produce functional mRNAs. This functional mRNA is then expressed into
proteins. Prokaryotes lack such machinery, hence expression of an
eukaryotic DNA becomes difficult in prokaryotic cells. Therefore,
scientists prepare cDNA from the functional nRNA (without introns) using
reverse transcriptase. This DNA is incorporated into bacteria (or
another prokaryotic cell) for expression of plant gene. Such foreign
gene synthesises a protein with the same sequence of amino acids as in
the plant, and therefore the proteins have the same structure and
function as in the plant.
Animals that have their DNA manipulated to process and express a foreign gene are called
The animals which carry foreign genes are called transgenic animals. The foreign genes inserted into the genome of the animal using recombinant DNA technology are called transgenes.
Which one of the following acids was produced by fermentation process?
Organic acids are among the most versatile ingredients in food and beverage industries. Citric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, gluconic acid, propionic acid and fumaric acid are some of the organic acids used widely in various industries. They are obtained as the end-products or sometimes as the intermediate components of a particular biochemical cycle. Generally, organic acids are produced commercially either by chemical synthesis or fermentation. However, fermentation processes are the most commonly used method.
Purines possess nitrogen at
DNA fragments with sticky ends are not allowed to undergo self ligation by
In transgenics, the expression of transgene in the target tissue is known by
Introduction of transgenes will result in
Read statements a-d. Which of the following statements are incorrect?
a) First transgenic buffalo Rosie produced milk which was human alpha-lactalbumin enriched.
b) Restriction enzymes are used in isolation of DNA from other macromolecules.
c) Downstream processing is one of the steps of rDNA technology.
d) Disarmed pathogen vectors are also used in the transfer of rDNA into the host.
In insertional inactivation of $\beta$-galactosidase gene, the bacteria in white colonies have
Which of the following is not component of downstream processing ____________.
Which is not one of the major categories of biotechnology products ?
Biotechnology involves the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, vaccines etc. It also involves various other methods involving production, amplification of DNA segments like DNA probe.
Which of the following is not a component of downstreaming processing?
Which among these is produced by distillation of fermented broth?
(i) Whisky (ii) Wine (iii) Beer (iv) Rum (v) Brandy
Both wine and beer are essentially the products of the fermentation process - the fermented broth serves as the basis of the product. Other alcoholic beverages (whisky, rum, brandy) fall under the category of distilled spirits. Distillation is the process by which the alcohol is removed from the fermented broth (or wort) by heating the wort until the alcohol vaporizes, after which it is condensed. When almost pure alcohol is distilled from fermentation, the product is called as grain neutral spirits (GNS).
Which of the following recent techniques is used for separating fragments of DNA?
Southern blotting involves DNA digestion, Gel electrophoresis, Blotting, Probe labeling, Hybridization and washing, and detection.