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Writing a paragraph - English - class-X

Description: writing a paragraph
Number of Questions: 47
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Tags: writing english
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The controlling idea of a paragraph is -

  1. The idea that focuses on the topic by giving direction to the composition.

  2. The main subject matter covered in the paragraph.

  3. The conclusion of a paragraph.

  4. The first line of a paragraph.


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option A

The question is on the definition of the controlling idea of a paragraph.
The controlling idea contains your opinion on the topic. It shows what direction you are going to take in writing about the topic. It helps the reader to understand your purpose for writing the paragraph. 
It is not a particular line in the paragraph. Hence Option D is incorrect.
The conclusion of a paragraph ends the paragraph by summarizing the ideas expressed in it. Option C is therefore not the correct answer.
Option B is also incorrect because actually the main subject matter covered in the paragraph depends on the controlling idea. The main subject is in accordance with the direction of the composition of paragraph.
So, according to the definition mentioned above, Option A is the correct answer.
The controlling idea of a paragraph is the idea that focuses on the topic by giving direction to the composition.

The concluding sentence helps to impress the reader only if -

  1. It binds the argument together

  2. It rephrases the main topic

  3. It guides the reader regarding the information given in the paragraph

  4. Both A and C


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option D.

The concluding sentence of a paragraph should be impressive to the reader.
It should not be a mere repetition or a re-phrasal of the main topic. Hence option B is the incorrect option.
An effective concluding sentence is one that binds the argument of the paragraph together and also helps the reader to understand the information given in the paragraph i.e. it acts as a guide to the reader.
Hence option A and C both are correct, making Option D the correct answer.  

The concluding sentences have a crucial role in paragraph writing. They __________________.

  1. Link the current paragraph with the following paragraph

  2. Draw together the information presented in the paragraph

  3. Both A and B

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option C.

The concluding sentences play an important role in paragraph writing.
They link the current paragraph with following paragraph, in case of short paragraphs in an entire paragraph.
These sentences summarize and draw together the information in the paragraph.
Therefore, Option A and B are correct. Hence Option C is the correct option.

In paragraph writing, we support our topic sentence with the following, except:

  1. Examples

  2. Statistical data

  3. Details

  4. Topic sentence


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option D.

After mentioning the main idea of the paragraph, the next step that follows is the illustration of the topic and the main idea. This is done by providing supporting explanation through examples, statistical data and other supporting details. Thus, option A, B, and C are the incorrect options since the question is what is NOT a part of the illustration of the topic. 
The topic sentence (Option D) is the directing force of the paragraph and not a part of the illustration of the topic. Hence Option D is the correct option.

Complete the given sentence.
A topic sentence ______________________.

  1. is a sentence which contains the topic and the controlling idea of the paragraph

  2. is the main topic of the paragraph

  3. helps the reader to understand the writer's ideas better.

  4. Both A and C


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

D is correct as a topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph in which it occurs. It also helps the reader to understand the writer's ideas better as it guides the reader as to the interpret the main idea, because of the topic sentence leading them to it. 
B is incorrect as the topic sentence has a larger function than just mentioning the main topic of the paragraph. As both A and C are correct, hence, only A and C are incorrect.

Which of the following is a salient feature of a strong paragraph?

  1. The length of the paragraph.

  2. It contains one main idea or topic.

  3. The topic.

  4. The writer's vocabulary.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option B

The question is on the salient or most important feature of a strong paragraph.
The length of a paragraph in no way contributes to its strength. A paragraph should be comprehensive. Therefore, Option A is the incorrect option.
A paragraph can be written on any topic. It is thus not a feature of a paragraph - making option C the incorrect option.
Similarly, the writer's vocabulary does not really contribute to the making of a strong paragraph if the writing is not comprehensive or the idea expressed in the paragraph is not unified. This makes option D incorrect.
A strong paragraph contains one main idea supported by supportive ideas. This unity is an essential feature of paragraph writing. Hence option B is the correct answer.

Which of the following is NOT a part of writing a paragraph?

  1. Reading the topic

  2. Introduction

  3. Conclusion

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option D.

The question is identification of the steps NOT involved in paragraph writing.
Options A, B and C are important steps in paragraph writing. To write a paragraph we first read the topic, then write the introduction which starts the paragraph and then conclude the paragraph by summing up the ideas expressed in the paragraph.
Therefore, option D -none of the above is the correct answer.   

Which of the following does NOT hold true for a paragraph?

  1. A paragraph is a container of only one idea.

  2. A paragraph should contain a convincing conclusion.

  3. All of the ideas in each sentence of a paragraph should point to one main idea.

  4. None of the above.


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option D.

We have to identify the point that does NOT hold true for a paragraph.
Option A is the incorrect option because a paragraph concentrates on one idea only.
A convincing conclusion is a characteristic of a well-written paragraph, therefore Option B is incorrect.
While a paragraph concentrates on one main idea, it is supported by subordinate ideas. However, these subordinate ideas should ultimately support and point towards the main idea. This makes option C the incorrect option.
Hence option D- none of the above is the correct answer.

While writing a paragraph, what immediately follows the main idea?

  1. The conclusion

  2. Illustration of the main idea

  3. Revision of the paragraph

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option B.

The conclusion ends the paragraph by summing up the ideas expressed.
This is followed by the revision of the paragraph to look for any kind of error and ensure that the unity of the paragraph is maintained. This is the last step in paragraph writing.
Hence Option A and C are incorrect.
After the main idea, a writer has to illustrate upon it by explaining and providing suitable examples. Therefore Option B - illustration of the main idea is the correct answer.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a well-written paragraph?

  1. Relevant information

  2. Linking of ideas

  3. Comprehensive sentences

  4. None of these


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

A well written paragraph is supposed follow a central idea. Thus, linking of ideas is important. The information regarding the central idea should be relevant. Thus, A is incorrect. For a well written paragraph, each sentence should be backed by logical reasoning that stays in one paragraph. Hence, the sentences must be comprehensive and relevant. Thus, C is also incorrect.
Hence, only D is correct. 

Which of the following contributes towards a better understanding of a paragraph?

  1. Topic sentence

  2. Continuity in flow of ideas

  3. Both A and B

  4. None of the above


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option C.

Various factors contribute towards better understanding of a paragraph.
The topic sentence expresses the main idea of the paragraph. Similarly, the flow of ideas in a paragraph should be continuous. Haphazard presentation of ideas confuses the reader resulting in the paragraph not being understood.
Therefore, Option C is the correct answer- Both Option A and B contribute towards a better understanding of a paragraph.

Which of the following is not a preliminary step in paragraph writing?

  1. Read the topic carefully

  2. Look for key terms or words in the topic

  3. Start writing without any preparation

  4. Think about what you already know about the topic


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option C.

The question is on which of the given options is not an important step in paragraph writing.
Paragraph writing is to be done on a given topic.

1. The first step, therefore, is to read the topic. Thus, option A is not the correct answer.
2. On reading the topic, one should then look for important words in the topic to know what is to be written in the paragraph. This being one of the initial steps makes option B the incorrect answer.  

3. Before starting to write a paragraph, on has to think about the topic, by drawing a rough diagram/outline or by jotting down points. Therefore, Option D is incorrect.
4. One is not supposed to start writing a paragraph without any preparation as it will lead to a scattered/incohesive paragraph. This is not a preliminary step in paragraph writing. Therefore, Option C is the correct answer.
 

Which of the following is a characteristic of a good conclusion of a paragraph?

  1. Summarizing the points stated in the paragraph

  2. Using linking words that indicate conclusions being drawn

  3. Repeating words or phrases from the topic sentence

  4. All of the above


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option D.

A good conclusion is an essential of a well written paragraph.
It is not merely the last line of the paragraph. It summarizes the points stated in the paragraph. Linking words like hence, therefore etc are used to link the ideas to the conclusion. Repeating words from the topic sentence in a conclusion helps to remind the reader the directing and controlling force of the paragraph.
Hence 'All of the above' - Option D is the correct answer. 

The essential elements of paragraph writing are _________________.

  1. understanding, topic, writer's intelligence and length.

  2. unity, order, coherence and completeness.

  3. details, continuity and information.

  4. introduction, conclusion and body.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The true intent of a paragraph is to express coherent points. The main idea of a paragraph always flows in one direction. As soon as this idea changes, the paragraph also changes.
Hence, a paragraph has
 one idea and everything familiar that naturally flows with it fits into one single paragraph. Thus, first is unity. 
Secondly, a paragraph must follow an order. As 
ideas in a paragraph should not be random,  They should be arranged into a logical chronological order that flows in one direction making it easier to read.
Thirdly, the main idea of the paragraph should not be
 hanging loose. There should be coherence to interpret the main idea.
Lastly, the paragraph ought be complete in itself. 
Therefore, B is correct. 
A is incorrect as topic and length are very loose basis to form a paragraph on.
C is incorrect as information can be random also.
D is incorrect as conclusion always comes at last. Hence, rendering this option incorrect.

The last step in paragraph writing is-

  1. Conclusion

  2. Stating examples

  3. Revision and proofreading

  4. Topic sentence


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The correct answer is Option C.

The conclusion summarizes the paragraph, but is followed by rechecking, revising and proofreading the paragraph. Therefore not being the last step in paragraph writing, Option A is incorrect.
Stating examples is a part of the illustration of the main idea of the paragraph and one of the middle stages in paragraph writing, making Option B the incorrect option.
The topic sentence is the controlling idea of the paragraph - hence option D is not the correct answer. 
As mentioned above, revision and proofreading for errors in the paragraph is the last step in the paragraph writing.
Option C is the correct answer. 

Identify the topic sentence:

We all hate a messy room, but what's worse is cleaning it. The following is the perfect system for cleaning your room. First, keep all items that do not have a designated place at the center of the room. Dispose of at least five things that you have not used within a year. Now find a location for each of the items you had placed in the center of the room. For the remaining items, try to squeeze them under your bed or into the back of your closet. See, that wasnt so hard!

  1. We all hate a messy room, but what's worse is cleaning it.

  2. The following is the perfect system for cleaning your room.

  3. See, that wasnt so hard!

  4. For the remaining items, try to squeeze them under your bed or into the back of your closet.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The correct topic sentence is Option B. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and here Option B serves the purpose as the paragraph describes process of cleaning your room. Option A is the introductory sentence but not the topic sentence as the paragraph describes the process of cleaning a room. Option C is incorrect as it concludes paragraph and does not depict the content of the paragraph. Option D is incorrect as it is only a step in the process mentioned.

Which option contains the best topic sentence?

  1. Abraham Lincoln was an influential leader.

  2. Abraham Lincoln was born in 1809.

  3. Abraham Lincoln, born in 1809, was one of the most influential politicians in the history of America.

  4. I am going to write about Abraham Lincoln.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The best topic sentence is Option C. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief. Here, the paragraph is about Abraham Lincoln and Option C introduces the paragraph appropriately. Options A and B are incorrect as they are information about Abraham Lincoln which can be a part of the paragraph individually but they do not serve the purpose of a topic sentence. Option D is incorrect as it does not adhere to the format of paragraph writing.

Identify the topic sentence:

What do you prefer: oceans or lakes? Oceans and lakes have many similarities, but they also possess many differences. Both are water bodies, but oceans are very large bodies of salt water, while lakes are much smaller bodies of fresh water. Lakes are usually surrounded by land, while oceans surround continents. Both are inhabited by plants and animals. The ocean is home to the largest animals on the planet, whereas lakes support much smaller life-forms. Both are ideal places to visit and enjoy during your vacations.

  1. What do you prefer: oceans or lakes?

  2. Oceans and lakes have many similarities, but they also possess many differences.

  3. Both are ideal places to visit and enjoy during your vacations.

  4. Both are water bodies, but oceans are very large bodies of salt water, while lakes are much smaller bodies of fresh water.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The correct topic sentence is Option B. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and here Option B serves the purpose as the paragraph compares the lakes and oceans in various ways. Option A is incorrect as it introduces us to the paragraph but does not clearly mention the content in brief. Options C and D are incorrect as they only depict certain factors on which the lakes and oceans are compared and are a part of the paragraph but they do not suit the purpose of a topic sentence.

Which option contains the best topic sentence?

  1. The Civil war had lasting effects on the South.

  2. I am going to discuss the effects on the South of the Civil war.

  3. Since the Civil war was fought mostly in the South, it had lasting effects there.

  4. The Civil war effected the South of America.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The best topic sentence is Option C. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and here, in Option C, it depicts both the place and effect of the Civil war. Options A and D are incorrect as they provide information about the Civil war in parts but do not suit the purpose of a topic sentence. Option B is incorrect as it does not adhere to the format of paragraph writing.

Identify the topic sentence:

People all over Britain worked to make, equip and support military, commercial and fishing fleets. So, many people found work in construction and maintenance work related to the shipping industry. Ships needed to be supplied with sails, ropes and other essentials; warships needed cannon and gunpowder; sailors and passengers needed food and these requirements kept people in employment throughout the year. Thus, seafaring was an important source of work for not only sailors and fishermen, but for many others.

  1. People all over Britain worked to make, equip and support military, commercial and fishing fleets.

  2. Thus, seafaring was an important source of work for not only sailors and fishermen, but for many others.

  3. So, many people found work in construction and maintenance work related to the shipping industry.

  4. Ships needed to be supplied with sails, ropes and other essentials; warships needed cannon and gunpowder; sailors and passengers needed food and these requirements kept people in employment throughout the year.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The correct topic sentence is Option B as it mentions that seafaring provided a lot of job opportunities for people. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief. Options A and C are incorrect as they mention that the people worked in various sectors of the shipping industry but does not give an overview of the situation. Option D is incorrect as it mentions about the requirements in a ship and how they kept the people employed, thus not fulfilling the purpose of a topic sentence.

Select a suitable topic sentence for the following topic:

Travelling to foreign countries

  1. To travel to other countries is always an adventure.

  2. Travelling to different countries involves a lot of planning and preparation.

  3. For instance, certain careers often include plenty of travelling.

  4. Foreign travel once used to be a luxury that only the rich could enjoy.


Correct Option: B,D
Explanation:

The correct topic lines that can suit the given topic are Option B and Option D. Both the sentences give an overview on what foreign traveling experiences involve and how can one plan for it. Once the paragraph proceeds the specific effects can be mentioned. Option C is incorrect as it is too specific and it can be included as a part of the paragraph but it does not suit as the topic line for the paragraph. Option A is too general and thus does not suit to be a correct topic sentence.

Select an appropriate topic sentence for the following topic:

Mental illness

  1. Of course, it comes as no surprise that the number of facilities available for the mentally ill is much less than the number of patients that need them.

  2. Mental illness is, on the other hand, still a stigma in our society.

  3. There are many ways in which society can help in the treatment and care of the mentally ill.

  4. Society's perception and understanding of mental illness have changed drastically in the last few years.


Correct Option: C,D
Explanation:

The correct topic sentence for the topic is Option C and Option D. Both the sentences give us an idea about the place of mentally ill people in our society and also gives us a hint about how people perceive them. Option A is incorrect as it is too specific mentioning only about the facilities for the mentally ill people. Option B is also incorrect as it only points out the negativity of people about mental illness.

Identify the best topic sentence for the following paragraph:

In European universities, students do not need to attend classes. As a matter of fact, German professors usually do not even know the names of their students. On the contrary, in the United States, students must attend every class and may be penalized for not doing so. Additionally, in the European system, students usually only have to appear for one comprehensive examination after their four or five years of study. On the other hand, in the American system, each semester ends with an exam and there are numerous assignments, quizzes, and tests throughout the semester.

  1. Students prefer to study in Europe rather than America.

  2. University systems can vary considerably from country to country.

  3. There is considerable debate as to which is better: the European education system or the American education system.

  4. The American education system is more rigorous than the European education system.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The best topic sentence for the paragraph is Option B. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and in this option the diversity in university systems in depicted appropriately. Options A, C and D are incorrect as all of these options are bringing in a comparison between the two universities as to which one is better, but that is not the central idea of the paragraph. The paragraph just mentions about the two systems.

Identify the topic sentence:

The Badanga was an object of sheer horror, as his life's object was to challenge quiet villagers to a duel. As the then law of the land stood in the Teda tribe, a man who declined to accept a challenge from a Badanga forfeited all his worldly possessions, even his wife, over to the hands of his challenger. Therefore, the Badanga had any man he challenged at his mercy. If the Badanga slew him, the farmer's possessions became his, and if the poor fellow declined to fight, he lost all legal right to his property anyway. A Badanga would invite himself to any feast and contribute to the hilarity of the entertainment by killing in gory fashion any merrymaker who displeased him. He might even single one out to murder for no other reason than to practice his combat skills. 

  1. Therefore, the Badanga had any man he challenged at his mercy.

  2. He might even single one out to murder for no other reason than to practice his combat skills.

  3. The Badanga was an object of sheer horror, as his life's object was to challenge quiet villagers to a duel.

  4. If the Badanga slew him, the farmer's possessions became his, and if the poor fellow declined to fight, he lost all legal right to his property anyway.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The topic sentence is Option C. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and here, why the people feared the Badanga, has been mentioned appropriately. Options A, B and C are incorrect as they describe the various ways in which the Badanga worried the people and each of them are a part of the reasons why people feared them but these sentences do not provide an overview of the situation mentioned in the paragraph.

Identify the topic sentence:

The heart weighs approximately 11 ounces and is as big as a clenched fist. The heart of a man beats about 60 to 80 times a minute and about 40 million times a year. With each beat, it takes in nearly a quarter of a pint of blood; in the course of a single day, it pumps 2,200 gallons of blood, and in a single lifetime about 56 million gallons. What other engine is capable of performing such heavy work over such a long period of time without needing repairs? Without a doubt, the human heart is a small yet highly efficient piece of equipment.

  1. The heart of a man beats about 60 to 80 times a minute and about 40 million times a year.

  2. Without a doubt, the human heart is a small yet highly efficient piece of equipment.

  3. The heart weighs approximately 11 ounces and is as big as a clenched fist.

  4. What other engine is capable of performing such heavy work over such a long period of time without needing repairs?


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The correct topic sentence is Option B as it depicts the size and the importantance of the heart in brief. The main role of a topic sentence is to depict the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and Option B does it appropriately. Options A and C are incorrect as each one of them is only describing one feature of the heart  at a time and thus does not summarize the idea in a sentence. Option D is incorrect as it is a question and it actually functions to introduce the topic sentence.

Select the best topic sentence for the given paragraph:

Since scientists can now work at the level of genes, animal breeding for desired features may soon become obsolete. Many people support genetic engineering, arguing that several genetic changes will be very beneficial and free of potential harm. They claim that as long as there are safeguards, humans would be foolish to not take advantage of genetic engineering. However, some people have seen the speed at which gene manipulation can get out of control, mixing species so that plant and animal are no longer discernible. They wish to turn back time. But can they?

  1. There are many cases where gene manipulation has gone out of hand.

  2. Whether people agree or not, genetic engineering has benefitted society in many ways.

  3. Bizarre hybrids are the biggest fear of people who do not support genetic engineering.

  4. Although it is still debatable whether genetic engineering will provide the benefits it promises without the dangers, it is definitely here to stay.


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The best topic sentence is Option D as it depicts both the positive and negative of the genetic engineering procedure briefly. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and Option D does that appropriately. Options A and C are incorrect as they only focus on the negatives of the procedure. Option B is incorrect as it only mentions the positive of the procedure.

Select a suitable topic sentence for the paragraph below:

For instance, people like the Eskimos, who live in places that have few trees, build temporary homes out of ice blocks. People who live in deserts, however, build houses out of mud or clay, which provide good insulation from heat and are readily available in their surroundings. In places where forests are plentiful, such as Northern Europe and Russia, homes are made out of wood. In the South Pacific, where there are many bamboo and palm trees, people use the tough, fibers of these plants to build their houses.

  1. People usually build homes out of things that they find around them.

  2. House construction in various parts of the world depends mainly on the availability of building materials.

  3. The climatic conditions in an area determine the kind of homes people build.

  4. The availability of trees is an important factor in the building of homes.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The correct topic sentence is Option C. A topic sentence states the point about topic the writer wishes to make about the subject. Here, the two main points are types of houses in the different parts of the world and the building materials of these houses. Option A is incorrect as the sentence is too general and is talking about 'building houses by people'. Option C is incorrect as this sentence specifies the climatic conditions directly. Option D is incorrect as it does not adhere to the essence of the paragraph.

Select a suitable topic sentence for the given topic:

The effect of T.V. on children.

  1. T.V. can help improve a child's imagination.

  2. Television may adversely affect a person's health.

  3. T.V. has both positive and negative effects on a child's behavior.

  4. Children these days watch a lot of television.


Correct Option: A,C
Explanation:

The correct topic lines that can suit the given topic are Option A and Option C. Both the sentences give an overview on the effects of television on children. Once the paragraph proceeds the specific effects can be mentioned. Option B is incorrect as it is too specific and points to only one possibility in which the paragraph can be built. Option D is too general and thus does not suit to be a correct topic sentence.

Identify the topic sentence:

As a result of depleting oil reserves and increasing environmental concerns, radical developments in car design have emerged. To find an alternative to conventional gasoline engines, researchers are experimenting with different types of fuels and engines. An engine which uses diesel oil instead of gasoline has been in existence for many years. There is also the gas turbine engine, which can utilize fuels made from gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and other petroleum distillates. Finally, many automobile manufacturers are testing methanol as a fuel. Hopefully, a breakthrough in these areas will relieve the overstretched oil market as well as the environment.

  1. As a result of depleting oil reserves and increasing environmental concerns, radical developments in car design have emerged.

  2. Finally, many automobile manufacturers are testing methanol as a fuel.

  3. Hopefully, a breakthrough in these areas will relieve the overstretched oil market as well as the environment.

  4. To find an alternative to conventional gasoline engines, researchers are experimenting with different types of fuels and engines.


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The correct topic sentence is Option A. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief. The paragraph is about finding alternate fuel options for locomotives due to declining oil reserves and the topic sentence mentions in appropriately. Options B and D are incorrect as they both depict one of the possibilities but not the overall idea. Option C is incorrect as it states a probable result but not the complete idea in brief.

Identify the sentence(s) which supports or elaborates on the given topic sentence:

Parents are progressively opting to send their children to private schools rather than public schools.

  1. Private school funding has increased considerably in the past few years.

  2. There are many reasons for this.

  3. The quality of education at private schools parallels or goes beyond that at public schools.

  4. Unfortunately, the average scores of students are better at public schools than at private schools.


Correct Option: A,C
Explanation:

The sentences which support or elaborate the given topic sentence is Option A and C. Option A states that due to increased number of students in private schools their funding has increased in past few years. Option C states that due to better quality of education, people tend to get their children admitted in private schools than in public schools. Option B is incorrect as it does not elaborate any fact. Option D is incorrect as it elaborates the fact inappropriately here.

Read the following paragraph and identify the topic sentence:

Driving in winter can be less problematic if you take a few simple precautionary steps. Firstly, if you are planning to drive on snowy, icy roads, put on snow tires. Secondly, make sure you have enough antifreeze in your radiator. Next, add anti freeze to your windshield washer fluid to avoid the fluid freezing and breaking the container. Finally, carry tire chains, a spray-can to unfreeze door locks, and a windshield scraper in your car when driving in cold weather.

  1. Finally, carry tire chains, a spray-can to unfreeze door locks, and a windshield scraper in your car when driving in cold weather.

  2. Firstly, if you are planning to drive on snowy, icy roads, put on snow tires.

  3. Driving in winter can be less problematic if you take a few simple precautionary steps.

  4. No topic sentence


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Option A - 'Finally, carry tire chains, a spray-can to unfreeze door locks, and a windshield scraper in your car when driving in cold weather.' is incorrect as the sentence talks more about the body of the paragraph and not the topic. Thus option A is incorrect.

Option B - 'Firstly, if you are planning to drive on snowy, icy roads, put on snow tires.' is incorrect as this sentence gives a solution to the main topic of the paragraph. Thus option B is incorrect.
Option C - 'Driving in winter can be less problematic if you take a few precautionary steps.' is the topic sentence, as the entire paragraph explains what the precautionary steps are. Thus option C is the correct answer.
Option D - Option D is incorrect as option C is the correct answer.
'Driving in winter can be less problematic if you take a few precautionary steps.'

Identify the topic sentence:

Throughout the centuries, some form of written communication has been utilized. In earlier times, people carved or painted messages on rocks. People then began writing on pieces of leather, which were rolled into scrolls. With the dawn of the Middle Ages, heavy paper called parchment was used for writing and books were laboriously hand-copied. With the advent of the printing press in the mid-fifteenth century, the modern printing industry came to life.

  1. In earlier times, people carved or painted messages on rocks.

  2. Throughout the centuries, some form of written communication has been utilized.

  3. With the advent of the printing press in the mid-fifteenth century, the modern printing industry came to life.

  4. With the dawn of the Middle Ages, heavy paper called parchment was used for writing and books were laboriously hand-copied.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The topic sentence of the given paragraph is Option B. A Topic Sentence depicts the content of a paragraph in brief. Here, the idea that writing was always used as a mean for communication is the central idea. Options A, C and D are incorrect as they all describe different ways in which writing has been used in different times and does not portray the central idea.

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

The archaeologist believed the coin she unearthed was ________ evidence, unquestionable proof that the site dated to the fourth century.

  1. Immaterial

  2. Potential

  3. Incriminating

  4. Nominal

  5. Indisputable


Correct Option: E
Explanation:

Option E is correct option as the coin she unearthed is the not doubt ful to believe the proof of 4th century..

Meaning of indisputable means not doubtful
Immaterial means irrelevant.
Potential means capable enough
Incriminating means being related to a crime or something wrong.
Nominal means of less value.
Hence all above meaning are not fitted to the sentence except the option E 

The sales assistant arranged the gems on the counter, he proceeded to tell us about the origins of each stone.

  1. The sales assistant arranged the gems on the counter, he

  2. The gems, which were arranged on the counter by the sales assistant, who

  3. The gems were first arranged on the counter by the sales assistant, then

  4. After arranging the gems on the counter, the sales assistant

  5. The sales assistant, having arranged the gems on the counter, he


Correct Option: D

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

In her writings about language, the poet Gloria Anzaldua celebrates the ____ of English and Spanish dialects spoken by Mexican Americans, arguing that such ____ lends an empowering flexibility to expression.

  1. Multiplicity . . variety

  2. Proliferation . . moderation

  3. Ambivalence . . focus

  4. Dearth . . depletion

  5. Abridgment . . imitation


Correct Option: A

Samuel Adams was by no means the first American to espouse the democratic cause, but he has been the first who conceived the party machinery that made it practical.

  1. Has been the first who conceived

  2. Had been the first who conceived

  3. Was the first having conceived

  4. Was the first to conceive

  5. Having been the first to conceive


Correct Option: D

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

At the family reunion Hiroko found her cousin charming and gentle, the _______ of his formerly rude and overbearing self.

  1. Remnant

  2. Antithesis

  3. Consequence

  4. Extremity

  5. Mainstay


Correct Option: B

Which option contains the best topic sentence?

  1. A victim may not be identified in such cases.

  2. Sometimes, a victim cannot be identified.

  3. A victim's identification may be lost.

  4. There are several cases when the victim cannot be identified.


Correct Option: D
Explanation:

The best topic sentence is Option D. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and here Option D serves the purpose as it signifies that many a times the victims remain unidentified. Option A, B and C are incorrect as the sentences only provide incomplete idea about the topic and thus do not serve the purpose of a topic sentence.

Identify the best topic sentence for the following paragraph:

Thousands of people are born each day. The population of the world has already exceeded seven billion. If the present growth rate remains unchecked, the world may soon face wide-spread starvation, poverty, and serious health problems. _________________________________ (topic sentence). 

  1. It is, therefore, predicted that most of the world's population will suffer from serious health problems in the near future.

  2. One of the most serious issues is the population boom in third world countries.

  3. The exponentially rising world population is the most important issue the world needs to address.

  4. We need to take active steps to curb the rising population.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

The best topic sentence is Option C as it mentions, that the rising population is a global threat, in brief.  A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and this option does it appropriately. Option A is incorrect as it only focuses on health problems. Option B is incorrect as it only focuses on the problem of third world countries. Option D is incorrect as it only mentions about finding a solution to this problem.

Identify the sentence which supports or elaborates on the given topic sentence:

Parents are progressively opting to send their children to private schools rather than public schools.

  1. Private school funding has increased considerably in the past few years.

  2. There are many reasons for this.

  3. The quality of education at private schools parallels or goes beyond that at public schools.

  4. Unfortunately, the average scores of students are better at public schools than at private schools.


Correct Option: A,C
Explanation:

The sentences which support or elaborate the given topic sentence is Option A and C. Option A states that due to increased number of students in private schools their funding has increased in past few years. Option C states that due to better quality of education, people tend to get their children admitted in private schools than in public schools. Option B is incorrect as it does not elaborate any fact. Option D is incorrect as it elaborates the fact inappropriately here.

Which option contains the best topic sentence?

  1. Martin Isle is the most polluted island in the world.

  2. There are many reasons why Martin Isle is now the world's most polluted island.

  3. Martin Isle is an island and it is very polluted.

  4. Pollution has destroyed the island of Martin Isle.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The best topic sentence is Option B. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and here, in Option B, the idea that various factors have made Martin Isle the most polluted island in the world is made clear very effectively. Options A, C and D are incorrect as they only focus on pollution in the island but do not discuss about the factors promoting pollution in the island.

Select a suitable topic sentence for the following topic:

Studying a foreign language

  1. However, we often overlook the importance of learning new languages.

  2. There are numerous benefits to studying a foreign language.

  3. Many factors influence students to learn a foreign language.

  4. There are a few, significant challenges to learning a foreign language.


Correct Option: C
Explanation:

Every paragraph should include a topic sentence that identifies the main idea of the paragraph. A topic sentence also states the point the writer wishes to make about that subject. Since the topic is generalised and there can be multiple approaches to it, we can focus on any of the aspects in B, C, and D. Option A starts with a contradictory sentence, hence, incorrect. 

Which option contains the best topic sentence?

  1. To be an effective leader requires certain skills and charactersitics.

  2. A leader is a person who leads a group or team towards a goal.

  3. Natural leaders are few and rare.

  4. Skills and characteristics define a good leader.


Correct Option: A
Explanation:

The best topic sentence is Option A. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and here, in Option A, the sentence depicts the main content, i.e., the what makes a good leader, very effectively. Options C and D are incorrect as they provide only partial idea about the content of the paragraph. Option B is incorrect as it only defines a leader but does not mention about the characteristics.

Identify the appropriate topic sentence:

An American woman may, for example, put on a kimono, a Japanese word. Americans living in warmer climates may take an afternoon siesta on an outdoor patio without realizing that these words have Spanish origins. They may enjoy the fragrance of jasmine flowers, a word introduced to the English language from Persia. They may blissfully be unaware that the chaise longue on which they relax and the glass of vodka they have in hand, are words of French and Russian origin respectively.

  1. There are many foreign words in the English language.

  2. Although the majority of Americans may not be aware of it, several features of their culture and language have come from other cultures.

  3. Americans are unaware of many things.

  4. Americans should learn new languages.


Correct Option: B
Explanation:

The appropriate topic sentence is Option B. A topic sentence depicts the overall idea of the paragraph in brief and this option suits the format where the unawareness of the Americans about foreign influences in their culture and language has been depicted. Options A, C and D are incorrect as they do not fulfill the purpose of a topic sentence, the information is incomplete and they would make inappropriate topic sentences.

Much of our knowledge of dinosaurs comes from excavated bones, which, in --- other clues such as fossilized tracks and eggs, help us to ---- the evolution of these creatures. 

  1. Convergence with .. supplant

  2. Divergence from .. decode

  3. Dependence on .. belie

  4. Opposition to .. amplify

  5. Conjunction with .. trace


Correct Option: E
Explanation:

Option E is correct option because in English we know that conjunction means the figure of speech which joins two sentence and in this sentence two sentences are joining;

First the subjective part that is knowledge from excavated bones the word which joins the following part that is clues such as fossilized tracks and eggs.
And due to the search of eggs and fossilized tracks only one can trace  the reality of the dinosaurs.
Hence Option E is correct.

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

The mountain road was distinctly _______: it twisted back and forth along the contours of the hillside.

  1. Panoramic

  2. Precipitous

  3. Serpentine

  4. Circumscribed

  5. Retrograde


Correct Option: C

Inside famed actor Lily Langtry's private railroad car were a drawing room with a piano, bath fixtures of silver, and there were draperies trimmed with Brussels lace.

  1. There were draperies trimmed with Brussels lace

  2. Draperies trimmed with Brussels lace

  3. Trimmed with Brussels lace were draperies

  4. The draperies were trimmed with Brussels lace

  5. Draperies trimmed with Brussels lace were there


Correct Option: A,B
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